How do Students Think about Soft CLIL in the Basque Secondary Schools?


  • Chiharu Nakanishi Kunitachi College of Music
  • Hodaka Nakanishi


The Basque Autonomous Community, multilingual, Soft CLIL, perception, attitudes


The Basque Autonomous Community, which is a bilingual community of Basque and Spanish, has adopted CLIL as a method to teach English as a foreign language with on-line materials as well as written materials. The object of this study is to investigate how the students think about studying subjects in English, in the form of Soft CLIL (Language-driven) in the Basque-medium school. The participants (n = 127) are 1st year secondary students. For them it is the 8th year to study English and 5th month to study subjects in English, in Soft CLIL. The results show that attitudes towards studying subjects in English are positive among overall students, whereas the majority of them want to learn subjects in Basque. The students who want to study subjects in English perceive the effect of Soft CLIL more than the others. The results obtained seem to confirm that Soft CLIL plays a positive role as a pre-stage to advance to Hard CLIL (Content-driven). The present study shows the pedagogical implication of adopting Soft CLIL to Asian countries.

Author Biography

Chiharu Nakanishi, Kunitachi College of Music

Department of Music



• Ball, P. (2008). How do you know if you’ practising CLIL? <>, Viewed on 15 August 2013.

• Cenoz, J. (2005). English in bilingual programs in the Basque Country, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 171, pp. 41–56.

• Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). Content and Language Integrated Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

• Dalton-Puffer, C. , Hüttner, J. Schindelegger, V, & Smit, U. (2009). Technology-Geeks Speak Out: What Students Think About Vocational CLIL, International CLIL Research Journal, vol 1 (2), 18-25,

• <>, Viewed on 15 March 2014.

• Elorza, I. & Lindsay, D. (2013). The Basque Education System & The Ikastola Network’s Plurlingual Plan, Ikastolen Etxea, Donostia. 17th June, 2013, At University of the Basque Country, Symposium, Summer Courses 2013

• Euskal Heriko Ikastolak Europar Kooperatiba Elkartea (2013). Ikastolak, <>, Viewed on 6 March 2014.

• Gabiña, J.J., Gorostidi, R., Iruretagoiena, R., Olaziregi, I. & Sierra, J. (1986). EIFE:Influence of Factors on the

• Learning of Basque. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia.

• Ikaselkar argitaletxea (2013), EKI Proiektua, <>, Viewed on 15 March 2014.

• Lasagabaster, D. & Cenoz, J. (1996). Language Learning in the Basque Country: Immersion versus non-immersion programs, Paper presented at the III European Conference on Immersion Programs, Barcelona.

• Lasagabaster, D. (2009). The implementation of CLIL and attitudes towards trilingualism. ITL, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 157: pp. 23-43.

• Lasagabaster, D. & Sierra, J. M. (2009) David Lasagabaster, Juan Manuel Sierra (2009). Language Attitudes in CLIL and Traditional EFL classes. International CLIL Research Journal 1(2): pp. 4-17.

• Lasagabaster, D. (2013) Basque, Spanish and English: Three languages in contact in the Basque educational system. In “Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Bilingualism†pp. 1078-1085, Vigo: University of Vigo.

• Sierra, J. & Olaziregi, I. (1989). EIFE 2: Influence of Factors on the Learning of Basque. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia.

• Yang, W. & Gosling, M. (2013). National Appraisal and Stakeholder Perceptions of a Tertiary CLIL Programme in Taiwan, International CLIL Research Journal, Vol. 2 (1) 2013, <>, Viewed on 15 March 2014.

• Zarobe, R. Y.,& Lasagabaster, D. (2010).CLIL in a bilingual community: The Basque Autonomous Region. In: CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training (eds. Lasagabaster, D. & Ruiz de Zarobe, Y.).




How to Cite

Nakanishi, C., & Nakanishi, H. (2016). How do Students Think about Soft CLIL in the Basque Secondary Schools?. Asian Journal of Education and E-Learning, 4(1). Retrieved from