Oil Content and Fatty Acids Composition of Cookies Produced from Blends of Tigernut and Wheat Flour


  • Oluyemisi Elizabeth Adelakun
  • Alabi Phebe Oyinkansola Department of Food Science, Ladoke Akintola University Ogbomoso, Nigeria




Wheat, tigernut, cookies, fatty acid composition


Tigernut is an underutilized crop but only recently its demand has increased tremendously because of its values. Composite flours were formulated from wheat and tigernut flour mixed in the ratios 100:0, 0:100, 80:20, 70:30 and 50: 50. Cookies were made from the composite flour samples and analyzed for sensory composition. The fat content of the cookies were extracted and evaluated for iodine value, free fatty acids, saponification value and fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography–spectroscopy.

The iodine value, FFA and saponification values varied from 20.3 – 32 gI2/g, 0.55 -0.82% and 27.49 - 67.04 mgKOH/g respectively. The FAMEs present were, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:3n-6, C20:3n-6, C22:1. The total SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs determined for each samples in the range of 33-49%, 46-59% and 5-8.1% respectively. Both decrease and increases in the amount of SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs were observed. Sensory evaluation reveals that the taste and texture of the cookies made from wheat flour substituted with 20% tigernut flour was most preferable. The quantity and quality of the lipid fraction of the cookies indicated that all analysed cookies are a good source of SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs consequently posing no threat to the health of the consumers.

Author Biography

Oluyemisi Elizabeth Adelakun

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso


Abdulkadir, A.G. and Jimoh, W.L.O. (2013) Comparative Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties of Extracted and Collected Palm Oil and Tallow. ChemSearch Journal 4(2): 44 – 54, Dec. Publication of Chemical Society of Nigeria, Kano Chapter

Ade-Omowaye, BIO Akinwande, BA Bolarinwa, IF Adebiyi AO 2008 Evaluation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus)-wheat composite flour and bread African Journal of Food Science 2 (1), 87-91,
Adeyemi I. A. (1988) Ogi Quality of Sorghum Flour Dry‐Milled from Fermented Sorghum Grains. Journal of Food Science 53 (2) : 641-642.

Ahmed, Zahra S, Safaa S Abozed, MS Negm (2014a) Nutritional value and sensory profile of gluten-free tiger nut enriched biscuit World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences 9 (2), 127-134,

Ahmed, Zahra S, Ahmed MS Hussein (2014b) Exploring the suitability of incorporating tiger nut flour as novel ingredient in gluten-free biscuit Polish journal of food and nutrition sciences 64 (1), 27-33,

Ajibola Comfort Funmilayo, Oyerinde Victoria Olubukola and Adeniyan Olakunle Stephen (2015) Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Whole-Wheat Biscuits Incorporated with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Cocoa Powder. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports 7(3): 195-206.

Anderson JW, Smith BM, Gustafson NJ (1994). Health benefits and practical aspects of high fibre diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59: 1242S-1247S.
AOAC (2012). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 20th ed.

A.O.A.C (2000) Official Method 920.159-Iodine Absorption Number of Oils and Fats/I.S.I Hand Book of Food Analysis Part-III-1984, A.O.A.C, 17th edition

A.O.A.C (2000) Official Method 920.160-Saponfication Number of Oils and Fats/IUPAC 2.202 I.S.I Hand Book of Food Analysis (Part XIII 1984), A.O.A.C, 17th edition,.

AOCS (1997) Official Method Ce 2-66, Preparations of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, Ill, USA,.

Aro, A., Jauhiainen, M., Partanen, R., Salminen, I., and Mutanen, M. (1997). Stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and dairy fat: effects on serum and lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), and lipid transfer proteins in healthy subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(5), 1419–1426

Arshad Muhammad Umair, Zakir Surayia, Anjum Faqir Muhammad, Zahoor Tahir and Nawaz Haq (2008) Nutritive Value of Cookies Containing Wheat Germ Oil. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 6(2): 127-134

Basman A, Koksel H (2003). Utilization of transgluranase use to increase the level of barley
and soy flour incorporation in wheat flour breads. Journal of Food Science, 68(8): 2453

Belewu, M.A. and K.Y. Belewu, 2007. Comparative physic chemical evaluation of tiger nut, Soybean and coconut milk sources. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5: 785-787.

Bello Florence A., Ntukidem Ofonime J., Oladeji Babatunde S. (2018) Assessment of Chemical Compositions, Physical and Sensory Properties of Biscuits Produced from Yellow Yam, Unripe Plantain and Pumpkin Seed Flour Blends. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 8(5): 119-126
Bokanga, M. (1995). Biotechnology and cassava processing in Africa. Food Technology 49(1), 86-90.

Bosch L, Alegria A, Farre R (2005). RP-HPLC Determination of tigernut and Orgeat amino
acid contents. Food Science andTechnology International. 11(1): 33-40.

Caponio Francesco, Summo Carmine, Delcuratolo Debora and Pasqualone Antonella (2006) Quality of the lipid fraction of Italian biscuits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86:356–361

Chinelo V Ezeocha, Nnenna A Onwuneme 2016 Evaluation of suitability of substituting wheat flour with sweet potato and tiger nut flours in bread making Open Agriculture 1 (1),
Dhingra, S., Jood, S. (2001). Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour. Journal of Food Chemistry, 77, 479-488.

Dubois V, Breton S, Linder M, Fanni J, Parmentier M. 2007. Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109:720–32.

El-Naggar, E. A (2016) Physicochemical Characteristics of Tiger Nut Tuber (Cyperus esculentus Lam) Oil. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 06(04) 1003-1011.
Farheena Iftikhar, Avanish Kumar and Uzma Altaf (2015) Development and Quality Evaluation of Cookies fortified with date paste (Phoenix dactylifera L) International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Volume 3 Issue 4: 975 – 978

ISI Hand book of food Analysis (part III) 1984 page 67/IUPAC2.201 (1979) I.S, 548 (Part-1)-1964 method of sampling and test for oils and fats/ISO 6601 1996 Determination of acid
value and acidity.

Kure, O.A., E.J. Bahayo and E.A. Daniel, 1998. Studies in the proximate composition and effect of flour particle size on acceptability of biscuit produced from blends of soya beans and plantain flours. Namida Tech-scope Journal., 3: 17-21

Mahesar, S. A., Sherazi, S. T. H., Abdul Rauf Khaskheli, . Kandhro Aftab A and Siraj uddin (2014) Analytical approaches for the assessment of free fatty acids in oils and fats Anal. Methods, 6, 4956–4963.This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014

Muhammad, N.O., E.B. Bamishaiye, L.A. Usman, M.O. Salawu, M.O. Nafiu and O.B. Oloyede, 2011. Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of C. esculentus (Tiger nut) tuber oil. Bioresearch Bulletin, 5: 51-54.

Oladele, A.K., and. Aina, J.O. (2007). Chemical composition and Functional properties of
Flour produced from two varieties of tiger nut. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6: 2473

Olaoye, O. A., Onilude, A.A. and Oladoye, C.O. (2007). Breadfruit flour in biscuit making: effects on product quality, African Journal of Food Science, 021- 023

Olugbenga O Awolu, Olufunmilayo S Omoba, Olumide Olawoye, Modupe Dairo 2017 Optimization of production and quality evaluation of maize‐based snack supplemented with soybean and tiger‐nut (Cyperus esculenta) flour Food science and nutrition 5 (1), 3-13,
Pomeranz, Y. and Meloan, C.E. (1987) Food analysis: Theory and practice. 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York

Yeboah SO, Mitei YC, Ngila JC, Wessjohann L, Schmidt J. (2012). Compositional and structural studies of the oils from two edible seeds: Tiger nut, Cyperus esculentum, and asiato, Pachira insignis, from Ghana. Food Research International 47:259-266



How to Cite

Adelakun, O. E., & Oyinkansola, A. P. (2020). Oil Content and Fatty Acids Composition of Cookies Produced from Blends of Tigernut and Wheat Flour. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajafs.v8i3.6146