Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Prepared from Wheat Flour and Cashew-Apple Residue as a Source of Fibre


  • C. O. Ebere Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt
  • N. J. T. Emelike
  • D. B. Kiin-Kabari


Physico-chemical, sensory, evaluation, cookies, cashew-apple, residue, source, fibre


Physico-chemical and sensory attributes of wheat/cashew-apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) fibre residue composite cookies were investigated. Cashew-apple fibre (CAF) was produced by sun-dried method (samples A, B, C, D), oven-dried method (samples F, G, H, I) and milled. Composite flour of wheat/ CAF was prepared using different levels of substitution from 0 – 20%, with 0% (sample E, 100% wheat flour) as the control. Cookies were produced using the composite flour blends, physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies evaluated within 48h of production.Physical attributes evaluated includes cookie weight, height, diameter and spread ratio. The incorporation of fibre affected significantly (p≥0.05) cookie height and weight using both methods compared to thecontrol while values for cookie diameter and spread ratio of the control sample were significantly higher compared to those with CAF addition. In all the sensory attributes studied, there were significant reductions compared to the control. However, the aroma, taste and general acceptability of cookies were found to improve with increase in the levels of CAF added.Chemical composition of the cookies showed that protein and carbohydrate decreased with increase in the levels of CAF while moisture, fat, ash and fibre increased significantly (p≥0.05) compared to the control. The fact that the overall acceptability rating of CAF incorporated cookies were close to the control sample (8.3) with 0% CAF and that crude fibre content of the cookies produced with CAF addition increased showed that cashew-apple residue can actually be used as a source of fibre in the food industry. This demonstrates a potential for cookie production using CAF supplementation in a productive exploitation of the currently wasted resources as a raw material source for cookie production.


Hesser, J.M. (1994). Applaicatioin and usage of dietary fibre in the U.S.A. International Food Ingredient. 2; 50-52.

Anderson, J., Grande, F. and Keys, A. (1973). Cholesterol lowering diets: experimental trials. Journal of Diet Association, 62; 133 – 142.

Burkitt, D.P. (1975). Large – bowel cancer: an epidemiologicaljigsaw puzzle, 54, 3-6.

Trowell, H., Burkitt, D..and Heaton, K. (1985). Definitions of dietary fibre and fibre-depleted foods and disease. Academic: London. 21-30.

Anita, F.P. and Abraham, P. (1997). Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition. Calcutta: Delli Oxford University Press. 73-77.

Graham, S, Dayal, H., Swanson, M., Mittleman, A. and Wilkinson. G. (1978). Diet in the epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum. 61; 709 – 714.

Heredia, A., Imenez, A., Fernandez–Bolanos, J., Guillon R. and Rodriguez, R. (2002). FibraAlimentaria. Madrid: Bibliotecadeciencias. 1-117.

Chau, C. F. and Huang, Y. L. (2003). Comparison of the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of different fibres prepared from peel of the citrus. Sinensis, L., Liuchang C.V. (Eds). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 51: 2615 – 2618.

Ogunjobi, M.A. and Ogunwolu, S.O. (2010). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cassava flour biscuits supplemented with cashew apple powder. Journal of Food Technology, 8(1): 24-29.

Gomez, M.V. Zapata L.E. and Pardo, C. (1983). Cyanide elimination, Chemical composition and evaluation in bread making of oven dried cassava peeled root chips or slices. Journal of Food Technology, 19; 493 – 498.

Oduwole, O.O., Akinwale T.O. and Olubamiwa. O. (2001). Economic evaluation of a locally fabricated extraction machine for a cottage cashew juice factory. Journal of Food Technology of Africa. 6 (1); 18 - 20.

Okaka, J.C. (2009). Handling, storage and processing of plant foods: Academy Publishers Enugu.

Tsen, C.C., Peters, E.M., Schaffer, T. and Hoover, W.J. (1973). High Protein cookies. Effect of soya fortification and surfactants, Baker digest, 47, 34-38.

Chinma, C.E. and Gernah, D.I. (2007). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from Cassava/Soyabean/Mango composite flours. Journal of Raw Material Research, 4, 32-43.

Young, H.P., Fellows, P.A. and Mitchell, J. (1985). Development of a high energy biscuit for use as a food supplement in disaster relief. Journal of Food Technology, 20(6), 689-695.

Okaka, J.C. and Isieh, M.K. (1990). Develoment and quality evaluation of cowpea-wheat biscuits – Nigerian Food Journal, 8, 56-62.

McWatters, K.H., Ouedraogo, J.B., Resurrection, A.V.A., Hung, Y.C. and Phillips, R.D. (2003). Physical and sensory characteristics of sugar cookies containing mixtures of wheat, fanio (Digitaria exilis) and cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) flours. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38, 403-410.

Onoja, U.S., Obizoba, K. and Ezeji, J.I. (2010). Physico-chemical, energy, minerals, vitamins and sensory properties of wheat based biscuits supplemented with African Yam-bean, cowpea, pigeon pea, water yam, cocoyam and plantain flours. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Science, 31, 62-67.

Ajanaku, K.O., Dawodu, F.A., Ajamaku, C.O. and Nwinyi, O.C. (2011). Functional and nutritional properties of spent grain enhanced cookies. American journal of Food Technology, 6, 763-771. http//

Ndife, J., Kida, F. and Fagbemi, S. (2014). Production and quality assessment of enriched cookies from whole wheat and full fat soya. European journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(1), 19-28.

Kiin-Kabari, D.B. and Eke-Ejiofor, J. (2013). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cakes and cookies produced from composite flours of wheat and plantain. Wudpecker Journal of Food Technology, 1(1): 009-013.

Chinma, C.E., Igbanul, D.B. and Omotayo, O.O. (2012). Quality Characteristics of Cookies prepared from unripe plantain and deffated sesame flour blend. American Journal of Food Technology, 7(7), 395-408.

Agriga, A.N. and Iwe, M.O. (2009). Proximate composition of cookies from cassava groundnut – corn starch blends. Nigerian Food Journal, 27, 102-107.

Okpala, L.C. and Okoli, E.C. (2011). Physico-chemical, energy, minerals, with African Yam-bean, cowpea, pigeon pea, water yam, cocoyam and plantain flours. Nigerian Journal of Nutrition Science, 31, 62-67.

Kiin-Kabari, D. B. and Giami, S. Y. (2015). Physico-chemical properties and in-vitro protein digestibility of Non-wheat cookies prepared from plantain flour and Bambara groundnut protein concentrate. Journal of Food Research, 4(2), 78-86. doi:10.5539/jfr.v4n2p78.

Oyewole, O.B., Sanni, L.O. and Ogunjobi. M.A. (1996). Production of Biscuits using cassava flour. Nigeria Food Journal, 14; 24 - 29.

AOAC. (2012). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (19th ed.), Gaithersburg, M.D. USA.

Osborne, D.R. and Voogt, P. (1978). The analysis of nutrients in foods. London Academic Press, 130-134.

Iwe, M. O. (2010). Handbook of sensory of analysis, Enugu, Nigeria. Rejoint Communication Science Ltd., 75-78.

Smith, W.H. (1972). Wine-cut cookies. In: Smith, W.H. (Ed.). Biscuit, crackers and cookies: Technology, Production and Management. Applied Science Pulishers, London, 737.

Lerrea, M.A., Chang, Y.K. and Martnez-Bustosc, (2005). Some functional properties of extruded orange pulp and its effect on the quality of cookies. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 38:213-220.

Camire, M.E., Douggherty, M.P. and Briggs, J.L. (2007). Functionality of fruit powder in extruded common breakfast cereals. Food Chemistry, 101(2):765-770.




How to Cite

Ebere, C. O., Emelike, N. J. T., & Kiin-Kabari, D. B. (2015). Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Prepared from Wheat Flour and Cashew-Apple Residue as a Source of Fibre. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(2). Retrieved from