Quality Evaluation of Blends and Cookies from Wheat/ African Fan Palm Shoot Flours


  • M. I. Yusufu Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah
  • J. O. Abu


African fan palm shoots, wheat flour, cookies, Physico - chemical and functional properties, proximate and mineral compositions, sensory properties


African fan palm shoots (AFS) were processed into flour. The flour was blended with wheat flour in the ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100, wheat : African fan palm shoot flour. Functional and physico-chemical properties of the flours were evaluated. The flour blends were used to produce cookies using standard method. The physical properties, proximate and mineral compositions of the cookies as well as sensory properties of the cookies were determined. The vitamin C content generally increased while the total sugar decreased as the proportion of AFP increased in the blends. The titratable acidity increased while the pH decreased as the level of AFS increases in the blends. The functional properties of the flours and the blends showed that the water absorption capacities increased while the oil absorption capacities decreased as the level of AFP increased and ranged from 52.50 - 60.21% and 85.00 - 89.80% respectively. The emulsion capacity and gelation concentration increased while the bulk densities decreased as the proportion of AFS flour increased and the values ranged from 51.25-58.33%, 8.0 - 16% (w/v) and 0.79- 0.62 (g/cm3) respectively. The results for proximate showed that the moisture, fiber and protein content decreases as the proportion of (AFS) increased and ranged from 6.02 - 13 00%, 2.15 – 2.42% and 10.48 – 8.22% respectively. The ash, Fat and carbohydrates increases as proportion of AFS increased and ranged from 2.50 – 3.10%, 1.80 – 5.40% and 69.80 -75.11% respectively. The results of the mineral composition of cookie samples shows that Mg, Ca and Mn content ranged from 150.33 – 406.28mg/100g, 55.25 – 884.40 mg/100g, and 5.20 – 10.56mg/100g respectively. The control sample (100% wheat cookie) has the least (p<0.05) amounts of Mg, Ca and Mn. The values for Na, K and P shows that the amount ranged from 8.22- 24.32mg/100g 432.63 - 450.50 mg/100g and 107.05 – 350.12mg/100g respectively. The control sample (100% wheat cookie) has the highest (p<0.05) amounts of Na, K and P. The physical characteristics shows that AFP cookies (0%, 25% and 50%) were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than cookies with 75% and 100% AFP. The diameters and densities of the cookies generally increased as the proportion of AFP flour increased in the cookies and were significantly (P<.0.05) affected. The percent cook yield decreases as the proportion of APS flour increases in the cookies. The sensory evaluation results showed that there was progressive decreased in all the sensory ratings as the level of African fan palm flour increased but up to 50 % inclusion did not adversely affect the sensory ratings. The study indicates that vitamin C enriched composite flours, Mg, Ca and Mn enriched cookies can be prepared from blends of wheat/ APS flour and up to 25 % inclusion of African palm shoot flour in wheat does not adversely affect the sensory characteristics of the cookies.



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How to Cite

Yusufu, M. I., & Abu, J. O. (2014). Quality Evaluation of Blends and Cookies from Wheat/ African Fan Palm Shoot Flours. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(6). Retrieved from https://ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/1989