Production and Quality Evaluation of Functional Biscuits from Whole Wheat Flour Supplemented with Acha (Fonio) and Kidney Bean Flours

Ufot E. Inyang, Etini A. Daniel, Florence A. Bello


Composite flours are used for bakery products to improve the nutritional value and reduce the reliance on wheat importation. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of supplementing whole wheat flour with acha and red kidney bean flours on the physical properties, proximate composition, mineral and sensory characteristics of biscuits made from the blends. Blend ratios used were 100:00:00 (T1, control sample), 75:25:00 (T2), 75:00:25 (T3) and 50:25:25 (T4) (whole wheat: acha: kidney bean flour). The result showed that all the parameters varied with the composition of flours in the blends. The biscuit weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio ranged from 16.32 to 19.08g, 4.02 to 4.40cm, 0.69 to 0.78cm and 5.33 to 6.38 respectively. Incorporation of kidney bean flour in the blends led to the reduction in spread ratio of the biscuit. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents in the biscuits ranged from 11.73 to 15.20%, 16.34 to 17.95%, 1.52%, to 1.73%, 1.65 to 1.80% and 63.36 to 68.70% respectively. Samples T3 and T4 with kidney bean flour incorporation had higher protein, dietary fibre and lower carbohydrate contents than samples T1 and T2 with no kidney bean flour incorporation. The calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents ranged from 36.14 – 45.72mg/100g, 105.40 – 128.72mg/100g, 29.60 – 46.81mg/100g, 3.89 – 5.12mg/100g and 2.01 –3.51mg/100g respectively. Incorporation of kidney bean flour enhanced the calcium, magnesium and iron contents in the biscuits. Sensory mean score values showed that samples T3 and T4 were the most preferred samples in terms of overall acceptability as their values were not significantly (p>0.05) difference from each other. It is evident from the study that acceptable biscuits of improved nutritional value and high dietary fibre content could be produced from whole wheat flour supplemented with acha and kidney beans flours. This will increase the utilization of these locally grown crops and reduce wheat importation into the country. The high fibre biscuit will also possess several health benefits.


Biscuits, whole wheat flour, acha flour, kidney bean flour, nutritional composition, sensory characteristics

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