Effect of Drying Methods on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Fortified with <i>Moringa</i> (<i>Moringaolelfera</i>) Leaves


  • N. J. T. Emelike
  • F. O. Uwa
  • C. O Ebere Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt
  • D. B. Kiin-Kabari


Drying methods, Physicochemical, Sensory properties, Fortified cookies, Moringa leaves.


The study was undertaken to determine the effect of drying methods on the physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat flour cookies produced with Moringa powder fortification. Cookies were produced with Moringa leaf powder derived from various drying methods (shade drying, sun drying and oven drying) and fresh leaves prior to milling and used in the formulations. The physical properties, proximate compositions and sensory attributes of the cookies were analysed. The results showed significant differences in weight of all the cookie samples from various drying methods while there was no significant difference in the fresh leaves and control cookie samples. Oven dried sample was the least in height (0.67), higher in diameter (3.80) and spread ratio (5.79) compared to other drying methods studied. All Moringa supplemented cookies had significantly lower (P<0.05) ash and fat contents than the control sample with ash and fat content of (2.06mg/100g and 20.32mg/100g), respectively. There was no significant difference between the protein content of the control cookie samples and cookies prepared from various drying methods studied. All the Moringa fortified cookies had significantly (p>0.05) higher fibre compared to the control sample. Sensory scores showed highest acceptability with the control sample (8.30) but there was no significant difference between the general acceptability of shade and sun dried samples (6.95 and 6.70), respectively. The findings suggest preliminary prospects for the development of Moringa fortified cookies for potential nutritional health benefits.



Akpapunam, M. A, and Darbe, J. W. (1994).Chemical composition and functional properties of blends of maize and bambara groundnut flours for cookie production. Plant Food Human Nutrition, 46,147–155.

Alobo, A. P. (2001). Effect of sesame seed flour on millet biscuit characteristics plant. Food Human Nutrition 56:195 – 200.

Jade, G. P., Emeliza, C. L, Jose, A. F. and J. Am (2013). Flour substitution and nutrient fortification of butter cookies with underutilized. Journal of the Bioflux Society 5(3), 115–120.

Ogunsina, B. S and Radhac (2011).Characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debitteredMoringaoleifera seed flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 62(2), 185–194.

O’ Sullivan, A. and Sheffrin, S. M. (2003). Economic principles in action. Upper saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Okaka, J. C. and Isieh, M. I. (1990). Development and quality evaluation of cowpea – wheat biscuit. NigerianFoodJournal, 3, 63–69.

FAO (1970).Amino acid content of food. Rome. FAO nutritional studies, no. 24 fen G. H.

Johnson, B. (2005). Clinical perspectives on the health effects of Moringaoleifera: A promising adjunct for balanced nutrition and better health. KOShealthpublications, August, 2005.

Gopalan, C., Rama, S. and Balasubramanian, S. C. (1989). Nutritive value of Indian foods. Natural Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of medical Research. New Delhi.

Gardener and Ellen, (2002). Moringa tree has many uses, from food to firewood. Yumasun .Portal market, Moringa Tree Powder.

Fahey, J. W. (2005).Moringaoleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties part 1. Trees forLifeJournal, 1,5–20.

Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. (1996). Nutritional value and anti-nutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringaoleifera leaves. AnimalFeedScienceandTechnology, 63(1–4), 211–228.

Mensah, J.K., Ikhajiagbe, B., Edema, N.E. and Emokhor, J. (2012). Phytochemical, nutritional and antibacterial properties of dried leaf powder of Moringaoleifera (Lam) from Edo Central Province, Nigeria. Journal of Natural Production and Plant Resource, 2(1), 107-112.

Mbah, B.O., Eme, P.E. and Paul, A.E. (2012). Effect of drying techniques on the proximate and other nutrient composition of Moringaoleifera leaves from two areas in Eastern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(11), 1044-1048.

Adeyemi, S.B., Ogundele, k.O. and Animasaun, M.A. (2014). Influence of drying methods on the proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringaoleifera Lam. Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2(1), 1-5.

Iqbal, A., Farrukh, A. and Mohammad, O. (2006). Modern Phytomedicine: Turning medicinal plants into drugs. Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.@2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Oyewole O. B, Sanni, L. O. and Ogunjobi, M. A. (1996). Production of biscuits using cassava flour. Nigeria Food Journal, 14,24–29.

AOAC (2005). International Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. (18th Edition) USA: Gaithersburg.

Osborne, D.R. and Voogt, P. (1978). The analysis of nutrients in foods. London Academic Press, 130-134.

Iwe, M. O. (2010). Handbook of sensory of analysis, Enugu, Nigeria. Rejoint Communication Science Ltd., 75-78.

Oluwamukoma, M. O., Oluwalana, I. B and Akinbowale, O. F. (2010). Physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat – cassava composite biscuit enriched with soy flour. AfricanJournal of Food Sciences, 5(2), 50–56.

Ebere, C.O., Emelike, N.J.T. and Kiin-Kabari, D.B. (2015). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour and cashew-apple residue as a source of fibre. Asia Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 3(2), 213-218.

Ogunjobi, M.A. and Ogunwolu, S.O. (2010). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cassava flour biscuits supplemented with cashew apple powder. Journal of Food Technology, 8(1), 24-29.

FAO (2005).Drying leaves and stems NZ Institute for crop and Food Research Ltd. New Zealand, FAOSTAT – The FAO online statistical data base for agriculture fisheries and forestry available at http//faostat.external.fao.org.

Aluko, O., Brai, M. R., and Adelore, A. O. (2013). Evaluation of sensory attribute of snacks from maize – Moringa seed flour blends. International Journal of Agricultural, Biosystems Science and Engineering, 7(10), 419–421.

Jadhes, S. L., Sharma, S. R., Pal, S. C., Kasture, S. B. and Kasture, V. S. (2000).Chemistry and pharmacologyof Moringaoleifera and MoringaconcanescensNiro. IndianDrugs, 37(4), 139–144.

Bell, D. D and Weaver, W. D (2002). CommercialChickenMeatandEggProduction. 5th Edition, 7, 8 and 47. Netherlands. Kluwer Academic publishers.

Teye, G. A., Baffoe, F. and Teye, M. (2012). Effects of Moringa (Moringaoleifera) leaf powder and Dawadawa (Perkiabiglobosa) on sensory characteristics and nutritional quality of frankfurter–type sausages - A preliminary study. Global advanced ResearchJournal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(1), 29–33.

Van, M. Y., Warrmant, N. and Bookque, L. V. (1999). Measurement and prediction of poultry colour. Meat scienceJournal, 52,347–354.




How to Cite

Emelike, N. J. T., Uwa, F. O., Ebere, C. O., & Kiin-Kabari, D. B. (2015). Effect of Drying Methods on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Fortified with <i>Moringa</i> (<i>Moringaolelfera</i>) Leaves. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(4). Retrieved from https://ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/2807