Extraction of Carotenoid Extracts from Kumquat Waste by Polarity Solvent and Investigation of Its antioxidant Power

Fatemeh Shooshtari, Vahid Hakimzadeh


Carotenoids can be used as nutritional supplements, pigments, and natural antioxidants in food industry. Carotenoids extant in fruits and vegetables are recognised as an effective antioxidant in various nutritional systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different polarity solvent on the carotenoid contents of Kumquat fruit wastes. Solvents such as methanol, ethyl acetate, and ethanol at 25 and 45°C were employed in the extraction process. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was investigated by the widely used DPPH, FRAP, total phenol method and the β-carotene linoleic acid test. The results based on antioxidant power indicated that the most suitable condition for extraction of carotenoids was the use of ethyl acetate solvent at 40°C.



Antioxidant, Carotenoid, Ethyl Acetate, Kumquat, Total Phenol

Full Text:



Abrahamsson.V, Rodriguez-Meizoso.I, Turner.Ch. Determination of carotenoids in microalgae using supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1250:63-68, 2012.

Advali .B, Golein. B. Cultivation of Citrus Fruits.Iran. 12-138, 2011.

Anguelova .T, Warthesen. J. Lycopene stability in Watermelon Powders. Food Chem.Toxicol. 65(1):67-70, 2000.

A.V. Rao, L.G. Rao. Carotenoids and Human Health. Pharmacol. Res. 55; 207-216, 2007.

Britton. G, Liaaen.Jensen .S, Pfander. H, (eds), Carotenoids.Handbook,Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.Boston.Berlin. 15–538, 2004.

Benzie I.F.F,Strain J.J. Ferric reducing / antioxidant power assay:direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration.J, Methods Enzymol, 299:15-27, 1999.

Delgado-Vargas. F, Paredes-López Andreeva. O. Natural colorants for food and nutraceutical uses. Boca Raton. Florida, 44- 71, 2003.

Delia. B, Rodriguz , Amaya and Mieko Kimura. HarvestPlus Handbook for carotenoid Analysis, 2-51, 2004.

Dixon. R.A, Paiva .N.I. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell. 7:1085 – 97, 1995.

Fayyazmehr. B, Asefi. N. Effect of ultrasound waves on amount and antioxidant capacity of extracted lycopene from tomato residue. Food Science and Technology. Faculty of Agriculture. Islamic Azad University. Amol. Iran.J,Iranian Food Science and Technology, 22(3):242-248, 2012.

Fikselova .M, Šilhar .S, Mareček. J and Frančakova. H. Extraction of carrot (Daucuscarota L.) carotenes under different conditions. Czech Journal of Food Science 26: 268–274, 2008.

Haghipoor H., Khanavi M. Investigation of the best method for the extraction of the extant phenol components in Echinacea.J,Echinacea Purpurea (L.)Moench.8 (4):146-152, 2009.

Hayouni.E.A, Abedrabba.M, Bouix.M, Hamdi.M. The effects of solvents and extraction method on the phenolic contents and biological activities in vitro of Tunisian Quercus coccifera L. and juniperus phoenicea L .Fruit extracts. Food Chemistry, 105; 1126-1134, 2007.

Hopkins. W.G. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NewYork. 2ed .pp: 134-135, 1999.

Hsin-Lan. L, Bing-Huei. Ch, Tsai-Hua. K, Chyuan-Yuan. Sh. Carotenoids composition in Scutellaria barbata D. Don as detected by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Journal of functional foods 8C, 100-110 2014.

Islam. K.M.S, Schweigert. F.J. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.Food Chemistry, 172:233-237, 2015.

Jayaprakasha. G. K, sngh. R. P, and sakariah. K. K.Antioxidant activity of grape seed extract on per oxidation models in vitro. J. Of Food Chem. 73: 285-290, 2001.

Khonsarn.N, Lawan. S. Level of Xanthophyll, Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Selected Thai Fruits Determined by HPLC.International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences. 39:240-243, 2012.

L.Roberts.R, Green.J, Lewis.B.Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin. Clinics in Dermatology, 27:195–201, 2009.

Mehdizadeh R., Fazeli M., Nejad Sattari T., Tofiqi h., Jamalifar h., Mirzaei S. Application of organic solvents, Visible, ultra – violate and HPLC spectroscopy methods in the optimization, extraction and determination of the concentration of lycopene in watermelon, Tehran Medical Science University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Studies, The medicine and food control group. 23:718-725, 2009.

Michaud. D.S, Feskanich .D, Rimm. E.B, Colditz. G.A, Speizer. F.E, Willett. W.C. Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2prospective US cohorts. Am. J. Clin.Nutr, 72(4):990-99, 2000.

Miller, H.E. A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48: 91, 1971.

Moden. B, Chuckle. H, Lubin. F. Note on the role of dietary retinol and carotene in human gastrointestinal cancer. Int. J. Cancer. 1981; 28:421, 1986.

Mohamadi. M, Elhami Rad. A.H, Pourfallah. Z. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin. Journal of Health Food, 2(1); 41-51, 2012.

Perkins.V, Collins Pair. S.D and Roberts. W. Lycopene content differs among redfleshed watermelon cultivars. J. Sci. Food and Agr, 81:983-987, 2001.

Qarakhani M., Qarakhani A., Qorbani M. The influence of Thompson Orange peel and flesh extracts on various basis on the prevention of soya oil oxidation. J,Echinacea Purpurea (L.)Moench, 10(2):55-66, 2010.

Ranjbar A., Maqsoudloo Y., Qorbani M., Sadeqi Mahoonak A. Optimization of lycopene extraction from tomato skin and bagasse. J.Iranian Food Science and Technology, 8(1):9-15, 2010.

Ravichandran, K., N. M. M. T. Saw, A. A. A. Mohdaly, A. M. M. Gabr, A. Kastell, H. Riedel, Z. Cai, D. Knorr and I. Smetanska. Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Res. Int. 50: 670–675, 2013.

Salari A., Habibi Najafi M., Farhoosh r. Extraction from grapeseed with various solvent systems and evaluation of its antioxidant and antiradical properties. Mashhad Ferdosi University,J,Food Science and Technology, 5(1):1-10, 2008.

Samsam shariat .SH. Extraction of effective components of herbal medicine, determination and evaluation methods, Mani Press. Esfahan. Iran. pp: 12 – 13, 1992.

Sheikhzadeh. M, Hakimzadeh. V, Abedi Qanbarabad. M. Optimization of the carotenoid extraction from banana skin based on lutein, Islamic Azad University Quchan.3red National Conference on Food Science and Technology, 6-11, 2014.

Socaciu. C. Food Colorants Chemical and Functional Properties. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton. 652p, 2008.

Toor .R.K, Savage .G.P. Antioxidant activity in different fractions of tomatoes. Food Res.International. 38: 487 – 94, 2005.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.