The The Effects of Solvents Polarity on the Phenolic Contents and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power of <em>Cassytha filiformis, Commiphora schlechteri, Ochna natalitias</em> and <em>Pavetta assimilis</em>
Keywords:Phenolic contents, Ferric reducing power, Cassytha filiformis, Pavetta assimilis, Ochna natalitia, Commiphora schlechteri.
In the present study, the levels of Total Phenols compounds (TPC) and the antioxidant capacity of different extracts from leaves of Cassytha filiformis (C. filiformis), Commiphora schlechteri (C. schlechterii), Ochna natalitias (O. natalitia) and Pavetta assimilis (P. assimilis) were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and ferric ion reduction methods, respectively. The extracts evaluated were prepared with solvents of different polarities (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol). The total phenols found in all samples increase with solvent polarity. The reduction power found was linearly proportional to the concentration and is greater the greater the content of total phenolics. All extracts of the species O. natalitia (DCM, EtAcO and MetOH) showed higher antioxidant capacity than the other species. Thus, the promising results found in the present study suggest a high potential of these species as a source for the development of therapeutically useful natural antioxidants.
B. Patwardhan, D. Warude, P. Pushpangadan and N. Bhatt, "Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2, p. 465–473, 2005.
S.-Y. Pan, G. Litscher, S.-H. Gao, S.-F. Zhou, Z.-L. Yu, H.-Q. Chen, S.-F. Zhang, M.-K. Tang, J.-N. Sun and Kam-Ming, "Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, 2014.
M. Ekor, "The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety," Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, p. 10 pages, 2014.
R. M. Palhares, M. G. Drummond, B. S. A. F. Brasil, G. P. Cosenza, M. d. G. L. Brandão and G. Oliveira, "Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality," PLoS ONE, vol. 2015, p. 29 pages, 2015.
P. Bruschi, M. Morganti, M. Mancini and M. A. Signorini, "Traditional healers and laypeople: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique)," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, pp. 543 - 563, 2011.
R. Verzára and G. Petri, "Medicinal plants in Mozambique and their popular use," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 19, pp. 67 - 80, 1987.
F. Barbosa, D. Hlashwayo, V. Sevastyanov, V. Chichava, A. Mataveia, E. Boane and A. Cala, "Medicinal plants sold for treatment of bacterial and parasitic diseases in humans in Maputo city markets, Mozambique," BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, vol. 20, p. 13 pages, 2020.
P. Cumbane, I. Magaia and A. Estivila, "A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel and nine commonly used substances to compare the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants," Natural Resources for Human Health, vol. 2, p. 228–235, 2022.
H. E. Zimila, A. L. Matsinhe, E. Malayika, Á. I. Sulemane, V. N. C. Saete, S. C. Rugunate, P. J. Cumbane, I. Magaia and F. Munyemana, "Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Salacia kraussii," Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, vol. 30, p. 6 pages, 2020.
S. Jafari, S. Saeidnia and M. Abdollahi, "Role of natural phenolic compounds in cancer chemoprevention via regulation of the cell cycle," Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 15, pp. 409 - 421, 2014.
K. W. J. Wahle, I. Brown, D. Rotondo and S. D. Heys, "Plant phenolics in the prevention and treatment of cancer," Bio-Farms for Nutraceuticals, vol. 698, pp. 36 - 51, 2010.
R. Rani, S. Arora, J. Kaur and R. K. Manhas, "Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis," BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 18, p. 15 pages, 2018.
K. Heim, A. R. Tagliaferro and D. J. Bobilya, "Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships," The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 13, pp. 572-584, 2002.
P. Cumbane, E. Mathusse and C. Madivate, "Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of hydroethanolic extract from Phragmanthera regularis leaves," World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, vol. 7, pp. 21-26, 2021.
G. Agbor and J. Vinson, "Folin-Ciocalteau Reagent for Polyphenolic Assay," International Journal of Food Science, Nutrition and Dietetics (IJFS), vol. 8, p. 11 pages, 2014.
A. Blainski, G. C. Lopes and J. C. P. d. Mello, "Application and Analysis of the Folin Ciocalteu Method for the Determination of the Total Phenolic Content from," Molecules, vol. 18, pp. 6852-6865, 2013.
N. Babbar, H. S. Oberoi, S. K. Sandhu and V. K. Bhargav, "Influence of different solvents in extraction of phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants," Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 51, p. 2568–2575, 2014.
A. Barchan, M. Bakkali, A. Arakrak, R. Pagán and A. Laglaoui, "The effects of solvents polarity on the phenolic contents andantioxidant activity of three Mentha species extracts," International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 399-412, 2014.
H. Metrouh-Amira, C. M. M. Duarteb and F. Maiza, "Solvent effect on total phenolic contents antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Matricaria pubescens," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 69, pp. 249-256, 2015.
J. O. Chaves, M. C. d. Souza, L. d. Silva, D. Lachos-Perez, P. C. Torres-Mayanga, A. F. Machado, T. Forster-Carneiro, M. Vázquez-Espinosa, A. González-de-Peredo, G. Barbero and M. A. Rostagno, "Extraction of Flavonoids From Natural Sources Using Modern Techniques," Frontiers in Chemistry, vol. 8, p. 25 pages, 2020.
S. L. R. D. Luna, R. E. Ramírez-Garza and S. O. S. Saldívar, "Environmentally Friendly Methods for Flavonoid Extraction from Plant Material: Impact of Their Operating Conditions on Yield and Antioxidant Properties," The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2020, p. 38 pages, 2020.
R. Bridi, M. J. Troncoso, C. Folch-Cano, J. Fuentes, H. Speisky and C. López-Alarcón, "A Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)-Assisted Folin–Ciocalteu Assay to Assess Total Phenol Content of Commercial Beverages," Food Analytical Methods, vol. 7, p. 2075–2083, 2014.
V. L. Singleton, "Analytical fractionation of the phenolic substances of grapes and wine and some practical uses of such analyses," Chemistry of Winemaking, vol. 137, pp. 184-211, 1974.
P. Cumbane and F. Munyemana, "Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves and stem extracts of Bridelia cathartica Bertol," Sky Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, pp. 18 - 26, 2017.
D. W. Wilson, P. Nash, H. S. Buttar, K. Griffiths, R. Singh, F. d. Meester, R. Horiuchi and T. Takahashi, "The role of food antioxidants, benefits of functional foods, and influence of feeding habits on the health of the older person: An oiverview," Antioxidants, vol. 6, p. 20 pages, 2017.
S. Mathew, T. E. Abraham and Z. A. Zakaria, "Reactivity of phenolic compounds towards free radicals under in vitro conditions," Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, p. 5790–5798, 2015.
D.-D. Zhou, M. Luo, A. Shang, Q.-Q. Mao, B.-Y. Li, R.-Y. Gan and H.-B. Li, "Antioxidant Food Components for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms, and Clinical Studies," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2021, 2021.
P. Verma and S. Mishra, "Antioxidants and disease prevention," International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, vol. 2, pp. 903 - 911, 2014.
P. Jayanthi and P. Lalitha, "Reducing power of the solvent extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) Solms," International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 126 - 128, 2011.
S. Aryal, M. K. Baniya, K. Danekhu, P. Kunwar, R. Gurung and N. Koirala, "Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Vegetables from Western Nepal," Plants, vol. 8, p. 12 pages, 2019.
R. Tsao, "Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols," Nutrients, vol. 2, pp. 1231-1246, 2010.
J. M. d. Mello and A. D. Fasolo, "Polyphenol Antioxidants from Natural Sources and Contribution to Health Promotion," Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, vol. 1, pp. 253-265, 2014.
S. Kumar, R. Sandhir and S. Ojha, "Evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenol in different varieties of Lantana camara leaves," vol. 7, p. 9 pages, 2014.
P. Cumbane and F. Munhemana, Bridelia cathartica Bertol: Actividade Antioxidante e Antibacteriana, 1 ed., vol. 1, Maputo: Novas Edições Acadêmicas, 2020, p. 100.
D. M. Pereira, P. Valentão, J. A. Pereira and P. B. Andrade, "Phenolics: From Chemistry to Biology," Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 2202-2211, 2009.
R. E. Beyer, "The role of ascorbate in antioxidant protection of biomembranes: interaction with vitamin E and coenzyme Q," vol. 26, pp. 349-358, 1994.
E. N. Frankel, "The antioxidant and nutritional effects of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in relation to processing of edible oils," Bibliotheca nutritio et dieta, vol. 43, pp. 297 - 312, 1998.
L. Muller and V. Bohm, "Antioxidant Activity of β-Carotene Compounds in Different in Vitro Assays," Molecules, vol. 16, p. 1055–1069, 2021.
Y. Zhong and F. Shahidi, "Methods for the assessment of antioxidant activity in foods," in Handbook of Antioxidants for Food Preservation., vol. 2015, Woodhead Publishing , 2015, pp. 287-333.
G. Pizzino, N. Irrera, M. Cucinotta, G. Pallio, F. Mannino, V. Arcoraci, F. Squadrito, D. Altavilla and A. Bitto, "Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2017, p. 14 pages, 2017.
R. Gul, S. U. Jan, S. Faridullah, S. Sherani and N. Jahan, "Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Analysis of Alkaloids, and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Plant Extracts from Ephedra intermedia Indigenous to Balochistan," The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2017, p. 8 pages, 2017.
N. R. Bhalodia, P. B. Nariya, R. N. Acharya and V. J. Shukla, "In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn," An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, vol. 34, p. 209–214, 2013.
M. Vijayalakshmi and K. Ruckmani, "Ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assay in plant extract," Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 11, pp. 570-572, 2016.
F. Shahidi and Y. Zhong, "Measurement of antioxidant activity," Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 19, pp. 757-781, 2015.
M. N. Alam, N. J. Bristi and M. Rafiquzzaman, "Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity," Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 21, pp. 143-152, 2013.
M. N. Alam, N. J. Bristi and M. Rafiquzzaman, "Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity," Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity, vol. 21, pp. 143-152, 2013.
N. Khaled-Khodja, L. Boulekbache-Makhlouf and K. Madanib, "Phytochemical screening of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of some Lamiaceae," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 61, pp. 41 - 48, 2014.
J. Ponnusamy and L. p. ramadas, "Reducing Power of the Solvent Extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.," International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 126-128, 2011.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Isabel Chemane, Paulo Cumbane, Ana Raquel Sitoe
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.