Pattern of Hearing Loss as seen at the Federal Medical Centre Lokoja, Nigeria: A Five Year Retrospective Study
Keywords:Pattern, Hearing Loss, Lokoja, Nigeria.
--- Background - Hearing Loss is a common cause of hospital visitation all over the world. In Nigeria alone it is estimated that one in seven children has hearing loss and this is quite worrisome due to the burden of the disease.
The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of hearing loss amongst patients seen in an urban tertiary O.R.L clinic in Lokoja, Nigeria.
Methods â€“ A five-year retrospective review of patients seen between January 2009 and December 2013 in O.R.L outpatient clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja. Out of 9,712 patients seen, 564 (5.8%) had hearing loss of whom only slightly more than half ever had a hearing test. They include 164 males (49%) and 172 females (51%) whose ages range from 6 to 85years. Unilateral hearing loss was seen in 126 patients while 210 had bilateral loss, giving a total of 546 ears that were studied and analyzed.
Result- A male to female ratio 1:1.05 was found. There was normal hearing in 5.0% of cases while the remaining 95% of cases had sensorineural or conductive or mixed hearing loss. Ototoxicity (31%) was found to be the commonest cause of hearing loss, followed by wax impaction (28.9%). Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be the commonest type of hearing loss in this study (47.0%), followed by conductive 31.0% and lastly mixed 17.0%. Most (42.5%) had moderately severe type of hearing loss and the modal age group was 20-29years.
Conclusion â€“ Ototoxicity, moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were found commonest in this study. Hence, we advised the government and non-governmental agencies to help put facilities in place for screening, early diagnosis and proper management.
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