Inclusion & Cyberbullying: Which Ultimately Prevails?

Konstantinos Zimianitis


            School bullying involves a range of aggressive behaviors aimed at causing harm to a person. This phenomenon is increasing in the student population at a global level. The continued evolution of technology and the use of technological tools in everyday life have contributed to the formation of so-called cyberbullying. In particular, increased use of mobile phones, social media, easy and fast internet access and anonymity in the digital world contribute to shaping the phenomenon.



Bullying, students, victimization, self-esteem

Full Text:



• Aizenkot, D., &Kashy-Rosenbaum, G. (2019). Cyberbullying victimization in WhatsApp classmate groups among Israeli elementary, middle, and high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-22.

• Alonso, C., & Romero, E. (2017). Aggressors and victims in bullying and cyberbullying: A study of personality profiles using the five-factor model. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20(e76), 1-14.

• Avşar, F., &Alkaya, S. A. (2017). The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 36, 186-190.

• Brighi, A., Melotti, G., Guarini, A., Genta, M. L., Ortega, R., Mora-Merchán, J., ... & Thompson, F. (2012). Self-esteem and loneliness in relation to cyberbullying in three European countries. Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives, 32-56.

• Cantone, E., Piras, A. P., Vellante, M., Preti, A., Daníelsdóttir, S., D’Aloja, E., ... &Bhugra, D. (2015). Interventions on bullying and cyberbullying in schools: A systematic review. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH, 11(Suppl 1 M4), 58-76.

• Corcoran, L., Connolly, I., &O'Moore, M. (2012). Cyberbullying in Irish schools: An investigation of personality and self-concept. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 33(4), 153-165.

• Cowie, H. A. (2011). Coping with the emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying: How research can inform practice. International Journal of Emotional Education, 3(2), 50-56.

• Del Rey, R., Elipe, P., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: Overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence. Psicothema, 24(4), 608-613.

• Estell, D., Farmer, T., Irvin, M., Crowther, A., Akos, P., &Boudah, D. (2009). Students with exceptionalities and the peer group context of bullying and victimization in late elementary school. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(2), 136–150.

• Froeschle, J. G., Mayorga, M., Castillo, Y., & Hargrave, T. (2008). Strategies to prevent and heal the mental anguish caused by cyberbullying. Middle School Journal, 39(4), 30-35.

• Grigoraki, M., Peraki, F., & Politi, A. (2016). Online bullying in childhood and adolescence: investigating the phenomenon as manifested in social media. Panhellenic Conference of Education Sciences, 2014 (2), 663-672.

• Heiman, T., &Olenik-Shemesh, D. (2015). Cyberbullying experience and gender differences among adolescents in different educational settings. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(2), 146-155.

• Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., &Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073-1137.

• Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Gorzig, A. and Olafsson, K. (2010) Risks and Safety on the Internet. London: London School of Economics.

• Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F., &Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation?.Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 403-420.

• Mark, L., &Ratliffe, K. T. (2011). Cyber worlds: New playgrounds for bullying. Computers in the Schools, 28(2), 92-116.

• Matos, A. P., Vieira, C. C., Amado, J., Pessoa, T., & Martins, M. J. D. (2018). Cyberbullying in Portuguese schools: Prevalence and characteristics. Journal of School Violence, 17(1), 123-137.

• Medina, C. L., Hennig Manzuoli, C., Duque, L. A., &Malfasi, S. (2018). Cyberbullying: tackling the silent enemy. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-12.

• Menesini, E., & Spiel, C. (2012). Introduction: Cyberbullying: Development, consequences, risk and protective factors. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2), 163-167.

• Palermiti, A. L., Servidio, R., Bartolo, M. G., &Costabile, A. (2017). Cyberbullying and self-esteem: An Italian study. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 136-141.

• Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self‐esteem. Journal of School Health, 80(12), 614-621.

• Riebel, J. R. S. J., Jäger, R. S., & Fischer, U. C. (2009). Cyberbullying in Germany–an exploration of prevalence, overlapping with real life bullying and coping strategies. Psychology Science Quarterly, 51(3), 298-314.

• Safaria, T. (2015). Are daily spiritual experiences, self-esteem, and family harmony predictors of cyberbullying among high school student. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 4(3), 23-33.

• Schneider, S. K., O'donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. W. (2012). Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 171-177.

• Son, E., Parish, S. L., & Peterson, N. A. (2012). National prevalence of peer victimization among young children with disabilities in the United States. Children & Youth ServicesReview, 34(8), 1540–1545.

• Sourander, A., BrunsteinKlomek, A. B., Ikomen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., Ristkari, T. and Helenius, H. (2010) Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 720-728.

• van Geel, M., Goemans, A., Toprak, F., &Vedder, P. (2017). Which personality traits are related to traditional bullying and cyberbullying? A study with the Big Five, Dark Triad and sadism. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 231-235.

• Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(5), 483-488.

• Zezulka, L. A., &Seigfried-Spellar, K. (2016). Differentiating cyberbullies and Internet trolls by personality characteristics and self-esteem. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law, 11(3), 7-26.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Education and e-Learning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.