Characterization of Small Scale Farmers’ Low Levels of Adoption to Crop Insurance as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability in Nyandarua County of Kenya
Keywords:Climate variability; adaptation strategies; crop insurance; binary logit model.
Kenya is one of the many countries in Sub Saharan Africa affected by climate variability and its related hazards due to changes in temperature and variations in rainfall in most parts of the country. The present study has been undertaken to assess the adaptation strategies applied by the small scale farmers in response to climate variability in Nyandarua County. The study has been conducted in central region of Kenya which is relatively humid and good for agricultural production. A total sample size of 300 respondents from five sub counties was used to collect the primary data through the random sampling technique. Descriptive Likert analysis and Inferential binary logit regression was used to assess the factors affecting the willingness to adopt crop insurance to mitigate the risks of variability of climate on crop farming. The results of the study indicate that adoption of crop insurance scored very low in relation to other adaptation strategies. The logit regression model on the other hand revealed that age and marital status was positively significant with willingness to adopt crop insurance while the marginal effects of levels of income and monthly income implied that the likelihood of willingness to adapt crop insurance increased by 1.32 times and 13.3 percent respectively. Based on the study findings, if small scale farmers are well supported to adopt crop insurance, then this adaptation strategy can be among the most effective strategies in Kenya. However, due to low adaptive capacity, more awareness needs to be created on the importance and procedures of obtaining the specific agricultural insurance covers. The study concludes that modern adaptation approaches are important in presence of formal crop insurance policies especially in the rural areas of Kenya.
Adger, W. N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M. M. Q., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., Smit, B.,Takahashi, K., Enright, B., Fankhauser, S., Ford, J., Gigli, S., Jetté-Nantel, S., Klein, R. J. T., Pearce, T. D., Shreshtha, A., Shukla, P. R., Smith, J. B., … Magalhães, A. R. (n.d.). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. 28.
Bryant, C. R., Smit, B., Brklacich, M., Johnston, T. R., Smithers, J., Chiotti, Q., & Singh, B. (2000). Adaptation in Canadian Agriculture to Climatic Variability and Change. In S. M. Kane & G. W. Yohe (Eds.), Societal Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change (pp. 181–201). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3010-5_10
Dercon, S. (2002). Income Risk, Coping Strategies, and Safety Nets. The World Bank Research Observer, 17(2), 141–166. https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/17.2.141
Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., & Ringler, C. (2010). Perception of and adaptation to climate change by farmers in the Nile basin of Ethiopia. The Journal of Agricultural Science,
Glennerster Rachel, Michael Kremer, Isaac Mbiti and Kudzai Takavarasha, Access and Quality in the Kenyan Education System:, (2011).53. A Review of the Progress, Challenges and Potential Solutions; GoK Press
Hassan, R., and Nhemachena, C. (2008), Determinants of African Farmers’ strategies for adapting to Climate Change: Multinomial Choice Analysis, AfJARE Vol 2, No.1, March2008, page 83-104.
Holzkämper, A. (2017). Adapting Agricultural Production Systems to Climate Change—What’s the Use of Models? Agriculture, 7(10), 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7100086
IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, ML, Hanson CE (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
Jaetzold, R., Schmidt, H., Hornetz, B. & Shisanya, C.A. (2007). Farm Management Handbook of Kenya Vol 2 (2nd Edition): Central Kenya. Natural conditions and farm management information. Ministry of Agriculture and GTZ, Nairobi.
Kaguongo, W., Gildemacher, p., Demo, p., Wagoire, W. Kinyua, P., Andrade, J., Forbes, G., Thiele, G., and fugile, K. (2007). Farmers practices and adoption of improved potato varieties in Kenya and Uganda. Maastridit School of management. Kampala
Limo W. K., 2013; Factors influencing climate change adaptation among tea farmers in Chebut catchment area, Nandi central district, Kenya, un published MA Theses, University of Nairobi
Malik,A, Xin Qin and Stephen C. Smith (2010) . Autonomous Adaptation to Climate Change: A Literature Review; IIEP Working Paper 2010-24 August 20, 2010; Elliott School of International Affairs George Washington University 1957 E Street, N.W., Suite 502 Washington, D.C. 20052
Mikalitsa, S. (2010). Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security inwestern province of Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v10i4.55327
Muriithi DI. (2020). Climate variability and crop farming; analysis of adaptation strategies among small scale farmers in Nyandarua County of Kenya; Ongoing Phd Thesis; University of Nairobi
Ngigi, M.W., (2017); Managing risk under climate change in Kenya Multiple shocks, poverty, gender, and potential for group-based approaches, Un published PhD Theses, University of Hohenheim, Germany
Oluoko-Odingo, A.A. 2011. Vulnerability and adaptation to food insecurity and poverty in Kenya. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101 (1): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2010.532739
Omwoyo F. and Akivaga P. 2005 “Comprehensive geography of form two students in Kenya”, Longhorn Publishers (U) Ltd, Kampala, Uganda.
Rakib, M., & Matz, J. A. (2014). The Impact of Shocks on Gender-differentiated Asset Dynamics in Bangladesh. IFPRI Discussion Paper. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01356. Washington, DC, USA.
Sarwary, M., Senthilnathan, S., Vidhyavathi, A., & Kokilavani, S. (2020). Socio-economic Impact of Climate Change, Adaptation and Determinants of Willingness to Pay for Crop Insurance in Central Agro climatic Zone of Afghanistan. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 83–92. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1630739
Sen, L. T. H., Bond, J., Winkels, A., Linh, N. H. K., & Dung, N. T. (2020). Climate change resilience and adaption of ethnic minority communities in the upland area in Thừa Thiên-Huế province, Vietnam. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 92, 100324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2020.100324
Simotwo, H. K., Mikalitsa, S. M., & Wambua, B. N. (2018). Climate change adaptive capacity and smallholder farming in Trans-Mara East sub-County, Kenya. Geoenvironmental Disasters, 5(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40677-018-0096-2
Stefan Trueck STR. Logit Model What Are Neural Networks ?,” no. 1993; 2015.
Thoai TQ, Rañola RF, Camacho LD, Simelton E. Determinants of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in agricultural production in the central region of Vietnam,” Land Use Policy. 2018;70:224– 231
Wambua, B. N., Omoke, K. J., & Mutua, T. M. (2014). Effects of Socio-Economic Factors on Food Security Situation in Kenyan Dry lands Ecosystem. 02(01), 8.
Wambua, B. N. (2008). Food Insecurity in Semi-Arid Areas: An analysis of socio-economic and Institutional factors with reference to Makueni District, Kenya. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Nairobi, Kenya
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 David I. Muriithi, Boniface N. Wambua, Kennedy J. Omoke
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.