Effects of Teachersâ€™ Non-cognitive Skills on Students Achievements in the Educational System: Implications for Teacher Training Programmes in Botswana
Keywords:Teachersâ€™ non cognitive skills, Students achievements
The training of teachers in institutions of higher learning emphasises on the knowledge of the subject matter and pedagogical skills or teaching methodologies. These are cognitive skills a teacher should possess for effective teaching in the educational system. But recently non- cognitive skills have been identified or suggested as also having an impact on learning outcomes. This research study examined the effect of Â teachersâ€™ non-cognitive skills on studentsâ€™ achievements in the educational system as perceived by students. A questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of three hundred (300) 2016 fresh undergraduate students at BA ISAGO University, who had just finished from different Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana. Â The undergraduate studentsâ€™ responses were subjected to Factor analysis. From the factor analysis, six (6) factors emerged with eigen values greater than one as the most important non-cognitive skills that Botswana teachers should possess which were as follows; Perseverance, Accommodating, Efficiency, Caring, Consideration and motivational skills that were perceived as teachers should possess for effective academic achievements by students. The undergraduate studentsâ€™ responses were also tested for significance with respect to gender and school location of students. Recommendations were made for the Botswana educational system and also implications for teacher training programmes in Botswana.
References for Journals
â€¢ Anand.K(2013), Soft Skills Competency Tool for Secondary Teachers in Strengthening Effective Communication and Interpersonal Competence- A Case Study, Science Technology and Management Journal by AISECT University, pp:1-5.
â€¢ Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2003). Personality predicts academic performance: Evidence from two longitudinal university samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(4), 319-338.
â€¢ Cohen, D. (2011). Teaching and its Predicaments. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
â€¢ Dobbie, W. (2011). Teacher characteristics and student achievement: Evidence from Teach for America. Available from: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu.
â€¢ Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44(4), 237-251.
â€¢ Duncan, G. J., & Dunifon, R. (2012). â€œSoft-Skillsâ€ and long-run labour market success. Research in labour economics, 35, 313-339.
â€¢ Farkas, G.(2003)â€œCognitive skills and non-cognitive traits and behaviours in stratiï¬cation processâ€, Annual Review of Sociology 29 (1):541-562.
â€¢ Gabrieli, C., Ansel, D., and Krachman, S. (2015). Ready to Be Counted: The Research Case for Education Policy Action on Non-Cognitive Skills. Retrieved from: https://goo.gl/7e8Kkg.
â€¢ Lleras, C. (2008). Do skills and behaviors in high school matter? The contribution of noncognitive factors in explaining differences in educational attainment and earnings. Social Science Research, 37, 888â€“902.
â€¢ Lindqvist, E. and R. Vestman (2011), â€˜The Labor Market Returns to Cognitive and Noncognitive Ability: Evidence from the Swedish Enlistmentâ€™, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(1), 101-128.
â€¢ Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well- being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.
â€¢ Pianta, Robert C., Carollee Howes, Margaret Burchinal, Donna Bryant, Richard Clifford, Diane Early, and Oscar Barbarin. 2005. â€œFeatures of Pre-Kindergarten Programs, Classrooms, and Teachers: Do They Predict Observed Classroom Quality and Child-Teacher Interactions?â€ Applied Developmental Science, vol. 9, no. 3, 144â€“159.
â€¢ Reddy.B and Krishnaiah.S(2014), Role of Teacher in English Language Communication Skills Laboratory, International Journal of Scientific Research, pp:145-146.
References for Books
â€¢ Bernstein, D., L. Penner, A. Clarke-Sterwart and E. Roy (2007) Psychology, 8th edition, Wadsworth Publishing.
â€¢ Burrus, J., MacCann, C., Kyllonen, P. C., & Roberts, R. D. (2011). Noncognitive constructs in K-16: Assessments, interventions, educational and policy implications. Readings on Equal Education: Diversity, Merit, and Higher Education: Toward a Comprehensive Agenda for the Twenty-First Century, New York.
â€¢ Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D. W., & Beechum, N. O. (2012). Teaching Adolescents to Become Learners: The Role of Noncognitive Factors in Shaping School Performance--A Critical Literature Review. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.
â€¢ Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence. Random House LLC.
â€¢ Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior (No. w12006). National Bureau of Economic Research.
â€¢ Rosen, J. A., Glennie, E. J., Dalton, B. W., Lennon, J. M., & Bozick, R. N. (2010). Noncognitive Skills in the Classroom: New Perspectives on Educational Research. RTI International. PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194.
â€¢ Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.