Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities <i>in vitro </i>and Polyphenol Contents of the Leaf Extract of a Versatile Medicinal Plant


  • Bamidele Amos-Tautua Niger Delta University
  • Oluwatobi Oluwafemi University of Johannesburg,
  • Olusiji Ajileye Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Kazeem Alayande Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Idowu Olawuni Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Funminiyi Bamidele Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Adebayo Onigbinde Babcock University
  • Sandile Songca University of Zululand


Antimicrobial, antioxidant, free radicals, Combretum racemosum, polyphenols


This study assessed polyphenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the solvent fractions obtained from Combretum racemosum leaf extract. Liquid-liquid extraction method was employed to separate the crude aqueous methanolic leaf extract of C. racemosum into n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) fractions. Antibacterial activities were determined using agar- well diffusion and agar dilution methods. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of the fractions was measured by 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and nitric oxide (NO) assays. MIC of the EtOAc fraction ranged from 0.63 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml while that of n-BuOH and DCM fractions ranged from 0.31mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml and 0.31 mg/ml to 0.63 mg/ml respectively. The n-BuOH fraction contains highest phenolic compounds (phenol and flavonoids), followed by EtOAc, crude, hexane and DCM. Total antioxidant capacity of the fractions follows the same order as the antioxidant. NO radical scavenging activities of all the fractions showed stronger activity than that of the reference ascorbic acid (AA). The greatest antiradical activity was found in butanol fraction; IC50 for DPPH, NO and FRAP are 38.39±7.20μg/ml; 0.11±0.03 μg/ml and 180.5203±0.86mg/ml respectively. Our findings indicate the potentials of C. racemosum leaf extracts as source of antioxidants and antimicrobials of natural origin

Author Biographies

Bamidele Amos-Tautua, Niger Delta University

Departmentnof Pure and Applied Chemistry; Lecturer

Oluwatobi Oluwafemi, University of Johannesburg,

Department of Applied Chemistry; Associate Professor

Olusiji Ajileye, Obafemi Awolowo University

Department of Chemistry

Kazeem Alayande, Obafemi Awolowo University

Department of Microbiology

Idowu Olawuni, Obafemi Awolowo University

Department of Biochemistry

Funminiyi Bamidele, Obafemi Awolowo University

Department of Biochemistry

Adebayo Onigbinde, Babcock University

School of Basic Sciences, Chemistry Unit, 

Associate Professor

Sandile Songca, University of Zululand

Department of Chemistry



De Smet, P.A.G.M., The role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in health care. Drugs. 54, 801-840, 1997.

Li, T.S.C., Taiwanese native medicinal plants: Phytopharmacology and therapeutic values. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Florida. USA. Pp 328., 2006.

Aladesanmi, A.J., Iwalewa, E.O., Adebajo, A.C., Akinkunmi, E.O., Taiwo, B.J., Olorunmola, F.O., Lamikanra, A. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Trad. CAM, 4 (2), 173 – 184, 2007.

Doughari, J.H., Phytochemicals: Extraction Methods, Basic Structures and Mode of Action as Potential Chemotherapeutic Agents, Phytochemicals - A Global Perspective of Their Role in Nutrition and Health, Dr Venketeshwer Rao (ed), InTech Europe, Croatia. pp 538., 2012.

Nascimento, G.G.F., Locatelli, J., Freitas, P.C., Silva, G.L., Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz. J. Microbiol. 31, 247-256, 2000.

Lewis, K., Ausube, F.M., Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials. Nature Biotech. 24(12), 1504 – 1507, 2006.

Voravuthikunchai, S.P., Kitpipit, L., Activities of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants on methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin Microbiol. Infect. 9, 236, 2003.

Newton, S.M., Lau, C., Wright, C.W., A review of anti-mycobacterial natural products. Phytother. Res. 14,303-322, 2000.

Godínez-Rubí, M., Rojas-Mayorquín, A.E., Ortuño-Sahagún, D., Nitric Oxide Donors as Neuroprotective Agents after an Ischemic Stroke-Related Inflammatory Reaction. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 1–16, 2013.

Kalam, S., Gu, M.Z., Singh, R., Ankati, S., Free Radicals: Implications in Etiology of Chronic Diseases and Their Amelioration through Nutraceuticals. Pharmacologia. 6, 11-20, 2015.

Basore, R, Free radical attack on proteins can cause brain stress and loss of nerve cells in dementia. Scintillon Institute for Biomedical and Energy Research. 2015. Available from: April 29, 2017.

Sen, Li., Guowei Chen., Chao Zhang., Man Wu., Shuyan Wu., Qing Liu. Research progress of natural antioxidants in foods for thetreatment of diseases. Food Sci. Hum. Well. 3, 110–116, 2014.

Soriano-Maldonado, A., Hidalgo, M., Arteaga, P., de Pascual-Teresa, S., Nova, E., Effects of regular consumption of vitamin c-rich or polyphenol-rich apple juice on cardiometabolic markers in healthy adults: A randomized crossover trial. Eur. J. Nutr. 53, 1645–1657, 2014.

Tonin, F.S., Steimbach, L.M., Wiens, A., Perlin, C.M., Pontarolo, R., Impact of Natural Juice Consumption on PlasmaAntioxidant Status: A Systematic Reviewand Meta-Analysis. Molecules.20, 22146–22156, 2015.

Oliver-Bever, B., Medicinal plants in Tropical West Africa. University Press, Cambridge, 1986.

Burkill, H.M., The Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. 5, 378, 2000.

Ajibesin, K.K., Ekpo, B.A., Bala, D.N., Antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Combretum micranthum and C. racemosum. Global J. Med. Sci. 13-17, 2002.

Sofowora, A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Spectrum Books Ltd, Nigeria,1993.

Trease, G.E., Evans, W.C. Pharmacognosy. 14th edn. W.B. Sanders Company Ltd, London, 2000.

Ben Hsouna, A., Trigui, M., Ben Mansour, R., Mezghani, R., Damak, M., Jaoua, S., Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia silique essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 148, 66–72, 2011.

Akinpelu, D.A, Kolawole, D.O., Phytochemistry and antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piliostigmathonningii (Schum). Sci Focus J. 7,64-70, 2004.

Gulluce, M., Sahin, F., Sokmen, M., Ozer, H., Daferera, D., Sokmen, A., et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Menthalongifolia L. ssp. longifolia. Food Chem. 103, 1449–1456, 2007.

Li, H., Won,g C., Chen,g K., Chen, F., Antioxidant properties in vitro and total phenolic contents in methanol extracts from medicinal plants. LWT–Food Sci. Technol. 41, 385–390, 2008.

Neergheen, V.S., Soobrattee, M.A., Bahorun, T., Arouma, O.I., Characterization of the phenolic constituents in Mauritian endemic plants as determinants of their antioxidant activities in vitro. J. Plant Physiol. 163,787-799, 2006.

Pellegrini, N., Serafini, S., Del Rio, S.D., Bianchi, M., Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol. Nutr Food Res. 50, 1030-1038, 2006.

Barros, L., Baptista, P., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Effect of Lactarius piperatus fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 1731–1737, 2007.

Marcocci, L., Maguire, J.J., Droy-Lefaix, M.T.M., Parker, L., The nitric oxide scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 201(2),748-55, 1994.

Wootton-Beard, P.C., Moran, A., Ryan, L., Stability of the total antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of 23 commercially available vegetable juices before and after in vitro digestion measured by FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and FolinCiocalteu methods. Food Re.s Int. 44, 217-224, 2011.

Panda, B.N., Raj, A.B., Shrivastava, N.R., Prathani, A.R., The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of Acalypha indica Linn Root. Asian J. Res. Chem. 2(2), 148–150, 2009.

Okwuosa, C., Unekwe, P., Nwobodo, E., Chilaka, K., The anti-ulcer activities of leaf extracts of Combretum racemosum (Combracaceae). J. Biomed. Invest. 4,.9–14, 2006.

Onucha, PA., Audu, E.O., Ekundayo, O., Dosunmu, O.O., Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of extracts of Combretum racemosum.Proc. WOCMAP III, Vol. 1: Bioprospecting & Ethnopharmacology Eds. J. Bernáth, É. Németh, L.E. Craker and ZE Gardner. Acta Horticulturae. 675, ISHS, 97-101, 2005.

Ochoa, S.A., López-Montie, F., Escalona, G., Cruz-Córdova, A., Dávila, L., López-Martínez, B., et al. Pathogenic characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems associated with bioflm formation. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant Mex. 70(2),133-144, 2013.

Decre,´ D., Verdet, C., Emirian, A., Le Gourrierec, T., Petit, J-C., Georges Offenstadt, G., et al. Emerging Severe and Fatal Infections Due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Two University Hospitals in France Dominique. J. Clin. Microbiol. 49(8), 3012–3014, 2011.

Eze, J.I., Anosa, G.N., Ozota, C.A., In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of Combretum racemosum leaves. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(46), 10611-10616, 2012.

Kau, A.L., Martin, S.M., Lyon, W., Hayes, E., Caparon, M.G., Hultgren, S.J. Enterococcus faecalis tropism for the kidneys in the urinary tract of C57BL/6J mice. Infect. Immun. 73(4), 2461–2468, 2005.

Coulidiati, T.H., Millogo-Kone, H., Lamien-Meda, A., Yougbare-Ziebrou, M., Millogo-Rasolodimby, J., Nacoulma, O.G. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Combretum species from Burkina Faso. Res. J. Med. Plants. 5(1), 42-53, 2011.

Stefanovic, O.D., Tesic, J.D., Comic, L.R. Melilotusalbus and Dorycnium herbaceum extracts as source of phenolic compounds and their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant potentials. J. Food Drug Analysis. 23, 417-424, 2015.

Daoud, A., Malika, D., Bakari, S., Hfaiedh, N., Mnafgui, K., Kadri, A et al., Assessment of polyphenol composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Date Palm Pollen (DPP) from two Tunisian cultivars. Arab. J Chem. In Press 2015;

Lee, D-R., Lee, S-K., Choi, B-K., Cheng, J., Lee,Y-S., Yang, S.H. et al. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activities of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 10778. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med. 7(12), 962-967, 2014.

Jaiswal, D., Rai, P.K., Mehta, S., Chatterji, S., Shukla, S., Rai, D.K. et al. Role of Moringa oleifera in regulation of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med. 6(6), 426-432, 2013.

Boora, F., Chirisa, E., Mukanganyama, S., Evaluation of Nitrite Radical Scavenging Properties of Selected Zimbabwean Plant Extracts and Their Phytoconstituents. J Food Process. 1-7, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/918018

Joo, T., Sowndhararajan, K., Hong, S., Lee, J., Park, S.Y., Kim, S. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Saudi J Biol. Sci. 21, 427–435, 2014.

Bajpai, V.K., Sharma, A., Kang, S.C., Baek, K.H. Antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging efficacy of a diterpenoid compound sugiol isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med. 7(1), 9-15, 2014.

Ilhami, G., Zu¨beyr, H., Mahfuz, E., Hassan, Y.A. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of tannic acid. Arab. J. Chem. 3, 43–53, 2010.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek, M., Floryszak-Wieczorek, J. Nitric oxide: an effective weapon of the plant or the pathogen? Mol. Plant Pathol. 15(4),406–416, 2014.

Masoko, P., Eloff, J.N. Screening of twenty-four South African Combretum and six Terminalia species (combretaceae) for antioxidant activities. Afri. J. Trad. CAM. 4, 231–239, 2007.




How to Cite

Amos-Tautua, B., Oluwafemi, O., Ajileye, O., Alayande, K., Olawuni, I., Bamidele, F., Onigbinde, A., & Songca, S. (2017). Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities <i>in vitro </i>and Polyphenol Contents of the Leaf Extract of a Versatile Medicinal Plant. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(5). Retrieved from