Assessment of Soil Quality under Long-Term Rice-Based Cropping System in Paki, Kaduna State, Nigeria




cropping system, rice cropping, soil quality, sustainability.


The research was conducted to assess the long-term rice cropping effect on the quality of soils and to quantify th[i]e extent of degradation, aggradations and the sustainability of the soil for rice cultivation in the study area. Four farm plots were sampled from each of the three rice management regimes identified. Composite soil samples from top (0 - 15cm) were collected and analyzed for both macronutrients and micronutrients essential for rice growth. Using Larson and pears 1991 model, the result showed that micronutrients Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe that are highly essential trace elements required for rice cropping, were found to be degrading and unsustainable and the trend in the degradation of these trace elements was that as the age of rice cultivation increases, the degree of degradation was also increasing. Other basic soil fertility parameters such as Organic Carbon (OC), Total Nitrogen (N), and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) were also found to be degrading. However, Available Phosphorus was found to be aggrading. For this reason, continuous rice cultivation on the same piece of land over a long period of time in the study area and similar environment is not encouraged. Hence, it is recommended that crop rotation and incorporation of farm-yard manure should be use for improving the soil fertility and its sustainability.

Author Biography




Allan, D.L. and R. Killorn, “Assessing soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for crop nutrition and environmental riskâ€, In: J.W. Doran and A.J. Jones. (eds.). Methods for assessing soil qua Special Publication No. 49. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WIlity. SSSA Pp. 187-201, 1996.

Anderson D.W. and Gregorich, E.G., “Effect of soil erosion on soil quality and productivityâ€, In Western Provincial Conference on the Rationalization of Water and Soil Research and Management. Sask. Inst. of Pedology, Univ. of Sask., Saskatoon, SK. Pp. 105-113, 1984.

Bado, B.V. A. Aw and M. Ndiaye (2010) “Long-term effect of continuous cropping of irrigated rice on soil and yield trends in the Sahel of West Africaâ€, in Second Africa Rice Congress, Bamako, Mali, 22–26 March 2010: Innovation and Partnerships to Realize Africa’s Rice Potential Ecological intensification and diversification of rice-based systems

Blake, G.R. and K.H. Hartge, “Bulk Density. In Methods of Soil Analysisâ€. Par 1: physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Ed. ASA, SSA, Madison USA, PP: 365 – 375, 1986.

Bouyoucos, G.J., “A re-calibration of the Hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soilâ€, Agron 1,2, 43,434,438, 1951.

Bray, R.H and Kutz, L.T, “Determination of organic and available form of phosphorus†Soil science 59, 39-46, 1945.

Bremmr, J.N. and C.S. Mulvary, “Total nitrogenâ€, In: Method of Soil Analysis, Part 2; Agronomy Monograph. No. 9 Am. Soc. Agron. Madison Wisconsin. Pp: 599 – 622, 1965.

Cassman KG, Peng S. and Dobermann A., “Nutritional physiology of the rice plant and productivity decline of irrigated rice systems in the tropics†In: Ando T, Fujita K, Mae T, Matsumoto H, Mori S and Sekiya J eds. Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Food Production and Environment. XIII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands. p 783–788, 1997.

Duniya, N.R (2006) “Effects of Soil Physical Properties on Gully Erosion Development In Zaria, Northern Nigeriaâ€, Unpublished MSc. Dissertation, Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 2006.

Eno Jumbo, U., Trenchard, O.I., Joseph, A.O., Anthony, O.A. and Ivara, E.E. , “Manual of Soil , Plant and Water Analysesâ€, Sibon books Limited, festac,Lagos, Nigeria, 2009.

Husnain H., T. Wakatsuki, and T. Masunaga, “Field assessment of nutrient balance under intensive rice-farming systems, and its effects on the sustainability of rice production in Java Island, Indonesiaâ€, Journal of agriculture food and environmental sciences Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010.

Idris, G.Y., “An Assessment of Soil Quality under Continuous Rice Cropping In Paki, Ikara Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeriaâ€. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, 2014.

Idris, G.Y., “Some Aspect of Farming System of Paki: Guinea-Sudan Savanna Transitional Zoneâ€. Unpublished Undergraduate Dissertation, Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, 2008.

Iguisi, E.O., “Variation of Soil Loss in Two sub-basins near Zaria, Nigeriaâ€. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 1994.

Imolehin E.O., Wada A.C., “Meeting the rice production and consumption demands of Nigeria with improved technologiesâ€. NCRI, Badegi. International Rice Commission, Newsletter, p. 13, 2004.

Kowal J.M and D.T. Knabe, “An Agro-climatological Atlas of The Northern State of Nigeriaâ€. ABU Press, Zaria, Nigeria. 1972

Larson, W.E. and F.J. Pierce, “Conservation and Enhancement of Soil Qualityâ€. In: Evaluation for sustainable land management in the developing world. Bangkok, Thailand: International Board for Soil Research and Management, IBSRAM Proc. no. 12(2), 175-203, 1991.

Parr JF, Papendick RI, Hornick SB, Meyer RE., “Soil quality: Attributes and relationship to alternative and sustainable agricultureâ€. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 7, 5-11, 1992.

Paz-Gonzalez, A., Viera, S. R., Toboada castro, M. T., “The effect of cultivation on the spatial variability of selected properties of an umbric horizonâ€, Geoderma. 97, 273-292, 2000.

Roy, R.N., R.V. Misra, J.P. Lesschen and E.M. Smaling., “Assessment of soil nutrient balance. Approaches and methodologiesâ€. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 101 pp. 2003. Available online at URL: (Accessed 6-23-2013)

SAS institute (1998) Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Users guide Inst. Cary. N.C., 1998.

Sawa B.A. and Buhari B., “Temperature Variability and Outbreak of Meningitis and Measles in Zaria, Northern Nigeriaâ€, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 3(5): 399-402, 2011.

Walkley, A. and I. A. Black., “Organic carbon. In C. A. Blackâ€, In Method of Soil Analysis Part 2. American Society of Agronomy 9: 1372 – 1376, 1934.

Yusuf, M.A., “Soil Quality and Sustainability of Agricultural Management Under Small Holder Conditions In The Kano Closed-Settled Zone, Kano State, Nigeriaâ€. International Journal of Advanced and Innovative Research (IJAIR). Vol.2 Issue 7; 1-10, 1997. ISSN:2278 – 7844.

Yusuf, M.A., “Soil Assessment and Indigenous Soil Management Strategies in the Semi – Arid North Eastern Nigeriaâ€, Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, 2001.

Kowal J. and Omolokun A.O., “The Hydrology of Small Catchment Basin at Samara, Nigeriaâ€. Agric jounal Vol.7 No1 pp27-40, 1971

Klinkenberg K., “SOILS†IN M.J. Mortmore [ed] Zaria and it’s region. Occasional paper No. 4 Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 1970.

McCurry, P., “The geology of the Precambrian to Lower Palaeozoic rocks of northern Nigeria- A reviewâ€. In: Kogbe, C.A. (ed.) Geology of Nigeria, Elizabethan Publishing Co., Ibadan, Nigeria, p 15-38, 1976.




How to Cite

Garba, Y. I. (2017). Assessment of Soil Quality under Long-Term Rice-Based Cropping System in Paki, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(1). Retrieved from