Optimization of Parboiling Conditions of Local Rice Varieties in the Philippines
Keywords:optimization, parboiling, milling recovery, head rice recovery, lightness
Parboiling is a hydro thermal treatment of paddy before milling. It consists of three steps: 1) Soaking of rough rice, 2) steaming of soaked rice and 3) drying of steamed rice. Parboiling changes the physical and chemical modifications in the grain, fills the void spaces and cements the cracks inside the endosperm, making the grain harder, hence, minimizing internal fissure and breakage during milling.
Eleven (11) rice sample varieties, namely: NSIC:Rc 118, NSIC:Rc 254H, NSIC 238, Selection 64, Rc 158, 75 days, NSIC 216, Japonica, Rc 18, PHB 77 and Rc 218 were collected from four (4) provinces of Agusan del Sur, North Cotabato, Palawan and Orriental Mindoro. Three (3) soaking temperature settings (40oC, 50oC, 60oC) and three (3) soaking time (1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours) were applied followed by steaming at 121Â°C for 5 minutes using autoclave. The parboiled rice was dried to a mositure content of 14% (wb) before milling. The physical qualities of parboiled rice kernel were evaluated in terms of milling recovery, percent head rice and whiteness.Results showed that the quality of parboiled rice was significantly affected by the parboiling process such as soaking temperature and exposure time. The suitable soaking temperature for the selected rice varieties is 60â°C. The soaking time of 2 hours was recommended for NSIC:Rc 254H, NSIC 238, Rc 18, and PHB-77 while 3 hours for NSIC:Rc 118, Selection 64, Rc 158, 75 days, NSIC 216, Japonica and Rc 218. Through parboiling process, the milling and head rice recovery of selected rice varieties significantly increased (P< 0.05) from 73.24% to 78.64% and 79.13% to 99.54%, respectively. However, a slight decrease in the whiteness value fromÂ 70.56 to 59.70 was
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