Cost and Return Analysis of Maize (Zea Mays L) Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria


  • Offar Gwandi Ta'awu Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Adamawa state
  • Virendra Kamalvanshi Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
  • Samuel John Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Adamawa state



Cost, Return, Maize (Zea mays L), Production, Adamawa, Nigeria


This study evaluated the cost and return of maize (Zea mays L) production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of this study were set out to: examine the socioeconomic characteristics of sampled maize farmers and to evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area. A simple random sampling technique was adopted and used in selecting one hundred fifty (150) maize farmers in the area of study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin. The study shows that the majority 68.7% were full-time farmers with an average mean of 31 years of age and about 30.96 years of farming experience. The majority (85.3%) were male farmers and only 15.3% of the respondent had no formal education with an average land holding of 1.39 hectares.  The analysis of farm budgetary technique shows and reveals that maize (Zea mays) production in the area of study is a profitable enterprise with a gross margin of ₦72,413.05 and net farm income (NFI) of ₦46,412.25. The coefficient of gross ratio was 0.50; this implies that 50% of the gross income of maize went to offset total farm costs. The net farm income of naira invested was 0.69 and the operating ratio was 0.59. A gross ratio of less than 1 is always desirable for farm business. The study recommends among other things that farmers should strengthen themselves financially by forming cooperative groups whereby members could have access to loans at a very low rate and farm inputs could be purchased in bulk to be shared among members at a reduced.

Author Biography

Offar Gwandi Ta'awu, Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Adamawa state

Department of Agricultural Technology

Lecturer 11



Abdulrahaman AA, KolawoleOM (2008). Traditional Preparations and Uses of Maize in Nigeria. traditional preparation and uses of maize in ngieria.htm

Amaza, P.S., Bila, Y. and Iheanacho, A.C (2006). Identification of factors that influence technical efficiency of food crop production in West Africa: Empirical Evidence from Borno State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 107(2), 139–147.

Atibioke, O.A., Ogunlade, I., Abiodun, A.A., Ogundele, B.A., Omodara, M.A. and Ade, A.R.(2012). Effect of Farmers’ Demographic Factors on the Adoption of Grain Storage Technologies Developed by Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI): A case study of selected villages in Ilorin West LGA of Kwara State. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(6), 2012.

Cherdchuchai, S. and Otsuka, K. (2006). Rural income dynamics and poverty reduction in Thai villages from 1987 to 2004. Agricultural Economics, 35, 409-423,

Christopher, R. D., Ripusan, L. P., & Ronald, P. C. (2019). Maize in the third world. CRC Press, Boca Raton

Davis, J.R. (2003). The Rural Non-Farm Economy, Livelihoods and their Diversification: Issues and Options. A report prepared for Natural Resources Institute, Department for International Development and World Bank, 2003.

Gwandi, O., V. Kamalvanshi, P.S. Badal, Saket Kushuwaha, Chandra Sen ( 2018) Assessment of livelihood strategies and income distribution pattern among farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Vol.5 Issue.6, June- 2018, pg. 16-29

Gwandi, O., V. Kamalvanshi, P.S. Badal, Mukesh, K. Maurya and Saket Kushwaha (2019). “Comparative analysis of Constraints Affecting Farmers’ Livelihood Strategies in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, and Adamawa State, Nigeria” in Multilogic in Science (ISSN 2277-7601), an International Referred. peer-reviewed and indexed Quarterly Journal in science, Agriculture, and engineering. Volume VIII, Issue XXVIII, Jan 2019.

Gwandi, O. (2012). Economics of Beniseed (Sesamum indicum L.) production in mubi region of Adamawa State, Nigeria, Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, SAAT, FUT, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Gwandi, O., and Adewuyi, K. A. (2022). An Empirical Assessment of Farmers’ Livelihood Security in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch Vol. 07, No. 03; 2022 ISSN: 2456-8643

IITA (2001) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State. Annual Report on Maize Production

Khawar Jabran, Zahid Ata and Muhammad Farooq (2007): “Maize: Cereal with a Variety of Uses”.DAWN–Business. http://www

Macauly, H., & Ramindyita, T. (2015). Cereal crops: Rice, Maize, Millet, Sorghum, and Wheat. Department of crop science, University of Capetown. http.//

NPC. (2011). National Population Commission, Federal Office of Statistics. Census 2.

Olukosi, J.O., and Erhabor, P.O. Introduction to Farm Management, Principles and Applications, Agitab Publishers Ltd, Samaru, Zari, 1988.

Yunez-Naude, Taylor (2001). The determinants of non-farm activities and incomes of rural households in Mexico, with Emphasis on Education. World Development, 29(3).




How to Cite

Ta’awu, O. G., Kamalvanshi, V., & John, S. (2023). Cost and Return Analysis of Maize (Zea Mays L) Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 11(`1).