Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Chitosan with Nisin and Sodium Lactate, Sodium Diacetate, or Potassium Sorbate as Edible Coatings against<i> Listeria monocytogenes</i> and Bacterial Flora of Cooked Tuna Loins
Keywords:chitosan, Listeria monocytogenes, tuna, antimicrobials, nisin
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram positive, psychrotrophic, facultative anaerobic bacterium and it is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease of major public health concern. There is rising concern about the presence of L. monocytogenes in tuna products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating nisin (Nis) alone or in combination with one of three Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) antimicrobials, sodium lactate (SL), sodium diacetate (SD) and potassium sorbate (PS) against L. monocytogenes on cooked tuna loins. Loins cut into discs were inoculated with L. monocytogenes to a final population density of ca. 3.4 log cfu/g and then coated with a layer of chitosan incorporating Nis (500 IU/g) singly or in binary combination with SL (1.2% w/w), SD (0.125% w/w) or PS (0.15% w/w). Binary combination of (Nis + SL) was only moderately effective, reducing the population of L. monocytogenes by a maximum of 1.5 log cfu/g. After four weeks of refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes grew on samples coated with (Nis + SL) reaching a mean population density of 4.1 log cfu/g, which was not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05). In conclusion, this coating formulation failed to demonstrate any sustained inhibitory effect against both L. monocytogenes and background microflora on cooked tuna loins over an extended refrigerated storage period.
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