Effects of Terrorism and Violence on Bank Employees
Keywords:Terror, PKK, Violence, Banking Sector, Turkey
The authors examine the effects of riots that were coordinated by the Kurdish Workersâ€™ Party (PKK) in DiyarbakÄ±r, Turkey on bank employees. They analyze responses by the bank employees to five very specific questions covering the degree to which they were affected by the incidents (in general, regarding social and work lives), level of anxiety about the future, and intent to move out of the region because of terrorism. The demographic of the bank employees were also considered. The results show that responses to all five of the questions vary by the type of the bank employed, while demographics do not have any effect.
Alavosius, M.P., Braksick, L.W., Daniels, A.C., Harshbarger, D., Houmanfar, R., and Zeilstra, J. (2003) The impact of terrorism on the US economy and business. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 22(4): 3-26.
Bacik, G., and Coskun, B.B. (2011) The PKK problem: Explaining Turkeyâ€™s failure to develop a political solution. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 34: 248-256.
Bal, I. (2007) PKK TerÃ¶r Ã–rgÃ¼tÃ¼, tarihsel sÃ¼reÃ§ ve 28 Mart DiyarbakÄ±r olaylarÄ± analizi. UluslararasÄ± Hukuk ve Politika Dergisi 2(8): 75-89.
Bez, Y., and Emhan, A. (2011) Psychological distress of women working in banks. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry 3(3): 145-150.
Blomberg, B.S., Hess, G.D., and Orphanides, A. (2014) The macroeconomic consequences of terrorism. Journal of Monetary Economics 51(5): 1007-1032.
Browne, B., and Dwyer, C. (2014) Navigating risk: Understanding the impact of the conflict on children and young people in Northern Ireland. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37: 792-805.
Carleton, R. N. (2012) The intolerance of uncertainty construct in the context of anxiety disorders: Theoretical and practical perspectives. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 12: 937-947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.82.
Celik, A.B. (2005) Transnationalization of human rights norms and its impact on internally displaced Kurds. Human Rights Quarterly 27(3): 969-997.
Celik, A.B. (2005) â€œI miss my village!â€: Forced Kurdish migrants in Istanbul and their representation in associations. New Perspectives on Turkey 32: 137-163.
Collier, P., and Hoeffler, A. (2004) Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Pages 56: 563-595.
Criss, N.B. (1995) The nature of PKK terrorism in Turkey. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 18: 17-37.
Cornell, S.E. (2001). The land of many crossroads: The Kurdish question in Turkish politics, Orbis 45(1): 31-47.
Drakos, K., and Kutan, M.A. (2001) Regional effects of terrorism on tourism: Evidence from three Mediterranean countries. ZEI (Center for European Integration Studies).
Duru, H., and Yigit, M. (2014) TerÃ¶r ve TerÃ¶rle MÃ¼cadeleden DoÄŸan ZararlarÄ±n KarÅŸÄ±lanmasÄ± HakkÄ±nda Kanun, uygulanmasÄ± ve etkileri. EskiÅŸehir Ozmangazi Ãœniversitesi IIBF Dergisi 9(2): 123-150.
Emhan, A. (2011) The effects of terror and violence on entrepreneurs in the Eastern and South-Eastern regions of Turkey: A field research. Sosyoekonomi 2: 6-20.
Emsen, Ã–.S., and DeÄŸer, M.K. (2004) Turizm Ã¼zerine terÃ¶rÃ¼n etkileri: 1984-2001 TÃ¼rkiye deneyimi. Akdeniz Uni-versity Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences 4(7).
Feridun, M., and Sezgin, S. (2008) Regional underdevelopment and terrorism: The case of South Eastern Turkey. Defense and Peace Economics 19(3): 225-233.
Galea, S., Ahern, J., Resnick, H., Kilpatrick, D., Bucuvalas, M., Gold, J., and Vlahov, D. (2002) Psychological se-quelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. The New England Journal of Medicine 346(13): 982-987.
Gergin, N., Duru, D., and Cetin, H.C. (forthcoming) Profile and lifespan of the PKK guerillas. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.
Greenbaum, R.T., Dugan, L., and LaFree, G. (2007) The impact of terrorism on Italian employment and business activity. Urban Studies 44(5/6): 1093-1108.
Gunter, M.M., (2000) The Continuing Kurdish Problem in Turkey after Ã–calan's Capture. Third World Quarterly 21(5): 849-869.
Gunter, M. (2013) Reopening Turkeyâ€™s closed Kurdish Opening?. Middle East Policy 20(2): 88-98.
Icduygu, A., Romano, D., and Sirkeci, I. (1999) The ethnic question in an environment of insecurity: The Kurds in Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(6): 991-1010.
KurubaÅŸ, E. (2012) KÃ¼rt Sorununun Ã‡Ã¶zÃ¼m MantÄ±ÄŸÄ±nÄ± Anlamak, Ankara: Ankara Strateji EnstitÃ¼sÃ¼ YayÄ±nlarÄ±.
Mathews, A., and MacLeod, C. (2002) Induced processing biases have causal effects on anxiety. Cognition & Emotion 16: 331-354.
Nitsch, V., and Schumacher, D. (2004) Terrorism and international trade: An empirical investigation. European Journal of Political Economy 20(2): 423-433.
Ã–zeren, S., Sever, M., Yilmaz, K., and Sozer, A. (2014) Whom do they recruit?: Profiling and recruitment in the PKK/KCK. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(4): 322-347.
Reuman, L., Jacoby, R.J., Fabricant, L.E., Herring, B., Abramowitz, J.S. (2015) Uncertainty as an anxiety cue at high and low levels of threat. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Psychiatry 47: 111-119.
Roth, P.M., and Sever, M. (2007) The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as criminal syndicate: Funding terrorism through organized crime, a case study. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30: 901-920.
Sandler, T., and Enders, W. (2004) An economic perspective on transnational terrorism. European Journal of Politi-cal Economy 20: 301-316.
Schuster, M.A., Stain, B.D., Jaycox, L.H., Collins, R.L., Marshall, G.H., Elliot, M.N., Zhou, A.J., Kanouse, D.E.,  Morrison, J.L., and Berry, S.H. (2001) A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(20) (2001): 1507-1512.
TuÌˆrkiye GoÌˆcÌ§ Ve Yerinden OlmusÌ§ NuÌˆfus ArasÌ§tÄ±rmasÄ± (TGYONA) (2006), Hacettepe UÌˆniversitesi NuÌˆfus EtuÌˆtleri EnstituÌˆsuÌˆ, Ankara.
Ulusoy, K. (2010) The â€œDemocratic Openingâ€ in Turkey: A historical/comparative perspective. Insight Turkey 12(2): 71-90.
Ãœnal, M.C. (2012) The Kurdistan Workersâ€™ Party (PKK) and popular support: Counterterrorism towards an insur-gency nature. Small Wars & Insurgencies 23(3): 432-455.
Ãœnal, M. C. (2014) Strategist or pragmatist: A challenging look at Ã–calanâ€™s retrospective classification and defini-tion of PKKâ€™s strategic periods between 1973 and 2012. Terrorism and Political Violence 26: 419-448.
Uslu, E. (2007) Turkeyâ€™s Kurdish problem: Steps toward a solution. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30: 157-172.
van Bruissen, M. (1992) Agah, Shaikh and State, London and New Jersey: Zed Books.
van Bruissen, M. (2002) Kurds, states and tribes. In Faleh A. Jabar and Hosham Dawod (eds.), Tribes and Power: Nationalism and Ethnicity in the Middle East. London: Saqi, pp. 165-183.
Watts, N.F. (2006) Activists in office: Pro-Kurdish contentious politics in Turkey. Ethnopolitics, 5(2): 125-144.
YÄ±lmaz, B.S., and YÄ±lmaz, Ã–.D. (2005) TerÃ¶rizm ve terÃ¶rizmin hedefi olarak turizm endÃ¼strisi. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 4: 43-47.
Yaya, M.E. (2008) Turkish tourism industry, terrorism, and warfare. Available at SSRN 1083793.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.