Evaluation of Akaibiri Creek Sand at Akaibiri Town and Environments, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria, for Industrial Applications


  • Napoleon Wessey Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island
  • Davidson Egirani


Akaibiri Town, Akaibiri creek, sand, physical properties, geochemical properties, aggregates, glass. Industrial Applications


The colours of fifteen shallow dept non-weathered field samples of Akaibiri creek sand at Akaibiri Town and environments collected for physical and chemical properties investigation in the laboratory using BS:2975: 1958/1988 standards specifications were bright yellow, brown, reddish-brown, white and dark grey. The physical sieve grade size distribution was 2mm(3.0%), 1mm(6.11%), 500µm(13.88%), 300µm(54.25%), 180µm(9.33%), l06µm(7.14%), 63µm(2.87%), and <63µm(1.37%). The grade size analysis result indicated that the sand was of medium grade. The physical properties combined with a moisture content of 7.3% presented the sand as a material suitable for use in the construction, transport, building, refractory and sanitary industries as aggregates, but not for any type of glassmaking except processed for use in making general glass. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis Geochemical composition was SiO2(92.50%), CaO(0.355%), MnO(0.018%), Fe2O3(1.00%), TiO2(0.91%), Na2O(0.09%), K2O(2.26%) and L. O. I.(0.35%). This composition is representative of the sand. The most important industrial use determining elements in the sand were the Silica (Si), Iron (Fe), K2O (K) and Titanium (Ti). The Silica (SiO2) content of 92.50%, was low and the sand cannot be used as it is, for glass making. The iron (Fe2O3) content (1.00%), Ti (0.91%), K (2.26% ), Na (0.09%) and even the L.O.I (0.35%)  were too high for making any type of glass. The sand was generally not suitable for glass making particularly, o f colourless glass based on the geochemical properties and loss on ignition.  The non-detection of Alumina (Al) in the sand suggests its suitability for use in the manufacture of common glass and the presence of high content of  colouring agents Ti and Fe suggests the  suitability for coloured glass making. The contents of Si and K, (92.50% and 2.26%) respectively and the non detection of Al, can make the sand also suitable for use in the refractory and sanitaryware industries. 


• Akpokodje, E. G and Etu-Efeotor, J. O. The occurrence and Economic Potential of Clean Sand Deposits of the Niger Delta. Journal of African Earth Science, Vol. 6 1, pp. 61-65, 1987.

• Allen, J. R. L. Late Quartenary Niger Delta and adjacent areas: Sedimentary environment and lithofacies Bull. .A.P.G. 49, pp.547-600, 1965

• Amajor, L.C. Grain Size Characteristics and Geologic Control on the bed load sediments: A case study from Imo River Southern Nigeria. Journal of Africa Earth Science vol. 9, no. 314 pp.507-515, 1989

• Arumala, J. O. and Akpokodje, E. G. Soil properties and pavement performance in the Niger Delta. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, London. vol. 20, pp. 287-296, 1987

• Burke, K. and Durotoye, B. The Quaternary in Nigeria: A review Bull. ASEQUA vol. 25, pp.79-96, 1970b.

• British Standard Institute (BS 2975: 1958/1988)

• Collins L. and Fox, R. A. AGGREGATES: SAND, GRAVEL, & CRUSHED ROCK AGGREGATES FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES. Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication, 1985 ed

• Durotoye, B. Quaternary sediments in Nigeria. In: Geology of Nigeria (C. A. Kogbe Ed.) Elizabethan Preess, Lagos, pp.431-444, 1976

• Doust, H. and Omatsola, E. The Niger Delta. AAPG Memoir 48, pp.201-238, 1989

• Egirani, D. E. and Obande, O. D. (2003).Utilization of Makurdi River sand for sanitaryware and glass making, Intergrated Journal of Environment, Science & Technology. vol. 34, pp2810- 2814, 2003.

• Glass Making Raw Materials: Sand. Reference:48/340, 1974

• Gutt, W. Aggregates for waste materials, Building Research Station Current Paper, 4/72, 1972

• Gutt, W. and Nurse, R. W., 1974. The phase composition of Portland cement clinker, Building Research Establishment Current Paper 96/74, 1974

• Hamascch, C. R. British glass, 14, 1991

• Knill, J. K.. Industrial Geology ed., Oxford University Press, 344p, 1978

• Leibe, F. Millers’ glass of the 20’s and 30’s, a collector’s guide, pp.5-10, 1999.

• Murat, B. Stratigraphy and paleography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. in: T.F.G., 1970

• Okonny, I.P. Geology and soils. In: Alagoa, E. J.(Ed.). Land and People of Bayelsa State: Central Niger Delta. Onyoma Publications, Port Harcourt, pp.9-30, 1999

• Oyegun, C. U. Climate, Relief and Drainage. In Alagoa, E. J. (Ed.). Land and People of Bayelsa State: Central Niger Delta. Onyoma Publications, Port Harcourt, pp. 31-52, 1999

• Pettijohn, F.J. Sedimentary rocks, 2nd ed. Harper, New York, 1957

• Porter, J. J., Electron Microscopy of Sand Surface Texture. Journal of Sedimentary. Petrology, pp34, pp73-84, 1963

• Reyment, R. A. Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1965

• Short, K. C. and Stauble, A. J. Outline of the Geology of the Niger Delta, Bull.

• American. Association of Petroleum Geology, vol. 51, pp. 761-779, 1967.

• Slack, R. English pressed glass, 1830-1900, 1987

• Tse, A. C. and Akpokodje, E. G. Subsurface soil profiles in site investigation for foundation purposes in parts of the mangrove swamps of the eastern Niger Delta. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol. 46, no.1, pp. 79-91, 2010.

• Tucker, M. E. Sedimentary Petrology An Introduction. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1981.

• Udden, J.A. Mechanical composition of clastic sediments. Geological. Society. of America Bulletin., vol. 25, pp.655-744, 1914.

• Weber, K.. Sedimentological aspects of oilfields in the Niger Delta. Geol.En. 1971

• WentWorth, C.K. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments, Journal of Geology vol. 30, pp.377-392,1922

• Wessey, N.The Nuckwood, Rockford sand deposit as a glassmaking raw material. M.Sc. thesis, University of Hull, Hull, 1984

• Wessey, N. The evaluation of the industrial potential of Nigerian direct reduction steelmaking slag. Ph. D. thesis, University of Hull, 1988.

• Wessey, N. The Physical and Geochemical Investigation of Effurun River Sand at Ugbolokposo and Ugbomro, Uvwie-Aladja, western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 04, 06, 1-13, 2016

• Wessey, N and Egirani, D. Evaluation of the Delta Steel Company (DSC), Ovwian-Aladja, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria, Direct Reduction Steelmaking Slag for use in the

• Aggregates Industry. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research. vol. 5, no. 1, 1331-1336, 2017




How to Cite

Wessey, N., & Egirani, D. (2017). Evaluation of Akaibiri Creek Sand at Akaibiri Town and Environments, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria, for Industrial Applications. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(4). Retrieved from https://ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/4789