The Selected Properties of Hybrid Particleboard Made from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Merpauh (<i>Irvingla Malayanan</i> Olive) Sawdust Wastes


  • Norul Hisham Hamid Faculty of Forestry Universiti Putra Malaysia 43300 UPM Serdang Selangor Malaysia
  • Mohd Fitri Yazid
  • Noraishah Hassan
  • Mohd Afiq Mokhtar


Empty fruit bunch, merpauh, wastes, particleboard, hybrid, JIS 5908


The physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from Merpauh (Irvingla malayana olive) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) wastes mixture was investigated in relation to the fibre diameter and mixture ratio.  The EFB and Merpauh particles with diameter of less than 1 mm and more than 1 mm were prepared and they were mixed with ratios of 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0 separately. The particleboard sized of 340mm x 340mm x 12mm was prepared with a target density of 750 Kg/m3 contained 12% urea formaldehyde (UF) resin, 3% hardener and 1% wax. The water absorption, thickness swelling, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond were tested in according to JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard): 5908. The results showed that the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity of any mixture (EFB/wood) or homogenous EFB particleboards were not met a minimum requirement of JIS 5908: 2003 standard. In contrast, only modulus of rupture and internal bonding (thin particle) met a minimum standard.


Author Biography

Norul Hisham Hamid, Faculty of Forestry Universiti Putra Malaysia 43300 UPM Serdang Selangor Malaysia

Senior lecturer


Teoh YP, • Mat Don M, Ujang S, “Assessment of the properties, utilization, and preservation of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis): a case study in Malaysiaâ€, Journal of Wood Science Vol. 57, pp. 255–266, 2011.

Anis M, Kamaruddin H, Astimar AA, Mohd. Basri W, “Plywood from oil palm trunksâ€, Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 23, pp. 1159 -1165, 2011.

Rozman HD, Saad MJ, Mohd Ishak ZA, “Flexural and impact properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)–polypropylene composites—the effect of maleic anhydride chemical modification of EFBâ€. Polymer Testing Vol. 22, pp. 335–341, 2003.

Jacob M, Thomas S, Varughese KT, “Mechanical properties of sisal/oil palm hybrid fibre reinforced natural rubber compositesâ€, Journal of Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 64, pp. 955-965, 2004.

Abdul Khalil, HPS, Bhat I, Sartika MY, “Degradation, mechano-physical, and morphology properties of empty fruit bunch reinforced polyester compositesâ€, Journal of Bioresource Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 2278-2296, 2010.

Mat Rasat, MS, Razak W, Othman S, Janshah M, Aminuddin M, Tamar AT, Izyan K, “Properties of composites boards from oil palm frond agriculture wasteâ€, Journal of Bioresource, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 9-19, 2011.

----------------, “Equilibrium moisture content and moisture exclusion efficiency of acetylated rattan (Calamus manan)â€, Journal of Tropical Forest Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 32-40, 2014.

JIS-A 5098. Particleboard, Japanese Standards Association, 1-24 Akasaka, 4 Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan. 2003.

Glass SV, Zelinka, Moisture relations and physical properties of wood. Wood as an Engineering Material: Chapter 4. General Technical Report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of agricultural, Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, 2010

Hashim R, Wan Nadhari WNA, Sulaiman O, Hiziroglu S, Sato M, Kawamura F, Seng, TG, Sugimoto T, and Tanaka R, “Evaluation of some properties of exterior particleboard made from oil palm biomassâ€, Journal of Composites Materials Vol. 45, pp. 1659-1669, 2011.

Thoeman H, Irle M, Sernek M, Wood based panels: an introduction for specialists. Brunel University Press, London, England, 2010.

Dinwoodie JM, Properties and performance of wood adhesive, chemistry and technology. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.,1983.

Sreekala MS, George J, Kumaran MG, Thomas S, “The mechanical performance of hybrid phenol formaldehyde – based composites reinforced with glass and oil palm fibresâ€, Composite Science Technology, Vol. 62, pp. 339-353, 2002.

Nurrohana A, Jamaludin K, siti Zalifah M, Shaik Abdul Karim Y, Anis M “Manufacture and properties of oil palm particleboardâ€, In International Symposium and Exhibition in Sustainable Energy and Environment,Melaka, Malaysia, 2011.

Hashim R, Saari N, Sulaiman O, Sugimoto T, Hiziroglu S, Sato M, Tanaka R, “Effect of particle geometry on the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunkâ€, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, pp. 4251-4257, 2010.

Baskaran M, Hashim R, Said N, Mohamed Raffi S, Balakrishnan K, Sudesh K, Sulaiman O, Arai T, Kosugi A, Mori Y, Sugimoto T. and Sato M, “Properties of binderless particleboard from oil palm trunk with addition of polyhydroxyalkanoatesâ€, Composites (Part B), pp. 1109-1116, 2010.

Tsoumis G, Science and Technology of Wood. Structure, Properties and Utilization, Van Nostrand reinhold. New York, 1991.

Haygreen JG, Bowyer JL. Forest products and wood science: an introduction. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1982.




How to Cite

Hamid, N. H., Yazid, M. F., Hassan, N., & Mokhtar, M. A. (2015). The Selected Properties of Hybrid Particleboard Made from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Merpauh (<i>Irvingla Malayanan</i> Olive) Sawdust Wastes. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(4). Retrieved from