Optimization of Processing Parameters of Red Gypsum-Based Brick Manufacturing using Response Surface Methodology

Mohd Amirul Hakim Sidek, Rosli M. Yunus, Mohammad Al-Nizar Khan Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Remanul Islam


The red gypsum (RG) is a waste, industrial by product, can be potentially used for brick manufacturing. In the current study, the manufacturing of bricks using RG, sand and cement was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The water/cement (w/c) ratio and sand replacement were varied for an optimum compressive strength and water absorption properties of the cement. From the analysis, the average compressive strength of conventional cement brick (CCB) tested was 10.9 MPa. Based on the optimum solution from the RSM analysis, possible cost prediction was estimated which can provide some valuable information to the manufacturer.  


Red gypsum (RG); response surface methodology (RSM), brick manufacturing; compressive strength; water absorption

Full Text:



Rose Aini Kamarudin and Mohd. Shahir Zakaria, the utilization of red gypsum waste for glazes, The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 2007, 11(1) 57-64

Nurhidayah Binti Mahazam, Nurul Syafiqah Binti Mohd Azmi, Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Gypsum from Terengganu, Malaysia, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 2016, 5(1) 433-436.

Mohd Amirul Hakim Sidek, Rosli M. Yunus, Fadzil Mat Yahaya, Muhammad Faisal Baderolhissam, Mohamad Al-Nizar Khan Ahmad Khan, Properties of Mortar with Red Gypsum as Cement Replacement Material by Using Industrial Approach Method, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2017, 11(13), 115-121.

Sophia M, Sakthieswaran N, Ganesh Babu O, Gypsum as a Construction Material- A Review of Recent Developments, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, 2016, 2(12), 315-323.

P. N. Hughes, S. Glendinning, D.A.C. Manning, B. C. Noble, Production of green concrete using red gypsum and waste, Engineering Sustainability, 2010, 163(3):137-146.

Gazquez, M. J., Bolivar, J. P., Vaca, F., García-Tenorio, R., & Caparros, A. Evaluation of the use of TiO2 industry red gypsum waste in cement production. Cement and Concrete Composites, 2013, 37(1), 76–81.

Takanori Fukami, Shuta Tahara, Keiko Nakasone, Chitoshi Yasuda, Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Thermal Properties of CaSO4•2H2O Single Crystals, International Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 7(2) 12-20.

Z. M. Razi, M. R. Islam, and Muvinkumar Parimalam, Mechanical, structural, thermal and morphological properties of a protein (fish scale)-based bisphenol-A composites. Polymer Testing, 2019, 1-21.

M. R. Islam, M.D.H. Beg, A. Gupta and M. F. Mina. Optimal performances of Ultrasound Treated Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites as Demonstrated by Response Surface Method. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013, 128(5), 2847-2856.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v7i4.5875


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.