Effects of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions towards Victims of Child Sex Abuse
Keywords:child sexual abuse, sexual orientation, perceptions, rape myths
This study investigated whether victim gender, perpetrator gender, and victim sexual orientation (homosexual or bisexual) influenced perceptions of responsibility, severity, and reporting behaviors in a hypothetical case of child sexual abuse. One hundred and twenty-two university students read one of eight vignettes and completed a questionnaire. The results showed no significant main effects for perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on perceptions of responsibility, severity, and reporting behaviors. Victim gender had a moderate effect on attributions of severity and victim sexual orientation had a moderate effect on the endorsement of rape myths. Implications for future research and for victims of child sexual abuse are discussed.
Finkelhor, D, Korbin, J. Child abuse as an international issue. Child Abuse Negl. 1988; 12(1), 3-23. DOI:10.1016/0145-2134(88)90003-8
Rogers, P, Davies, M. Perceptions of victims and perpetrators in a depicted child sexual abuse case: gender and age factors. J Interpers Violence. 2007; 22(5), 566-584. DOI: 10.1177/0886260506298827
Brown, D, Endekov, Z. Childhood Abused: The Pandemic Nature and Effects of Abuse and Domestic Violence on Children in Australia. Melbourne: La Trobe University. Department of Criminology; 2005
Goldman, J, Padayachi, U. The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Queensland, Australia. Child Abuse Negl. 1997; 21(5), 489-498.
Maynard, C., & Wiederman, M. Undergraduate students perceptions of child sexual abuse: Effects of age, sex, and gender role attitudes. Child Abuse Negl. 1997; 21(9), 833-844. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(97)00045-8
Garnets, L, Herek, G, Levy, B. Violence and victimisation of lesbians and gay men: mental health consequences. J Interpers Violence. 1990 5(3), 3366-383. doi: 10.1177/088626090005003010
Dâ€™Augelli, A, Grossman, A, Starks, M. Parents awareness of lesbian, gay and bisexual youths sexual orientation. Aust J Marriage Fam. 2005; 67(2), 474-482. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00129.x
Australian Institute of Criminology. Australian Crime Facts and Figures 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology; 2007
Stanleym J, Bartholomew, K, Oram, D. Gay and bisexual mens age-discrepant childhood sexual experiences. J Sex Res. 2004; 41(4), 381-389.
Doll, L, Joy, D, Bartholow, B, Harrison, J, Bolan, G, Douglas, J, Saltzman, L, Moss, P, Degado, W. Self reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men. Child Abuse Negl. 1992; 16(6), 855-864. doi: 10.1016/0145-2134(92)90087-8
Duncan, D. Prevalence of sexual assault victimisation among heterosexual and gay/lesbian university students. Psychological Reports. 1992; 66(1), 65-66.
McConaghy, N, Zamir, R. Heterosexual and homosexual coercion, sexual orientation, and sexual roles in medical students. Arch Sex Behav. 1995; 24(5), 489-502. doi: 10.1007/BF01541830
Davies, M, Rogers, P. Perceptions of male victims in depicted sexual assault: A review of the literature. Aggress Violent Behav. 2006; 11(4), 367-377. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.01.002
Doherty, K, Anderson, I. Making sense of male rape: Constructions of gender, sexuality and experience of rape victims. J Community Appl Soc Psychol. 2004; 14(2), 85-103. doi: 10.1002/casp.765
Mitchell, D, Hirschman, R, Nagayama Hall, G. Attributions of victim responsibility, pleasure, and trauma in a male rape. J Sex Research. 1999; 36(4), 369-373.
Davies, M, Rogers, P, Whitelegg, L. Effects of victim gender, victim sexual orientation, victim response and respondent gender on judgments of blame in a hypothetical adolescent rape. Legal Criminol Psych. 2009; 14(2), 331-338. doi: 10.1348/978185408X386030
Davies, M, McCartney, S. Effects of gender and sexuality on judgments of victim blame and rape myth acceptance in a depicted male rape. J Community Appl Soc. 2003; 13(5), 391-398. doi: 10.1002/casp.741
Ford, T, Liwag-McLamb, M, Foley, L. Perceptions of rape based on sex and sexual orientation of the victim. J Soc Behav Pers. 1998; 13(2), 253-263.
Wakelin, A, Long, K. Effects of victim gender and sexuality on attributions of blame to rape victims. Sex Roles. 2003; 49(9/10), 477-487. doi: 10.1023/A:1025876522024
Kite, M, & Whitley, B. Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexual persons, behaviors, and civil rights: A meta-analysis. Pers Soc Psychol B. 1996; 22(4), 336-353. doi: 10.1177/0146167296224002
Tabachnick, B, Fidell, L. Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). United Kingdom: Pearson Publishing; 2007
Burt, D, DeMello, L. Attribution of rape blame as a function of victim gender and sexuality, and perceived similarity to the victim. J Homosexual. 2003; 43(2), 39-57. doi: 10.1300/J082v43n02_03
Davies, M, Rogers, P, Bates, J. Blame toward male rape victims in a hypothetical sexual assault as a function of victim sexuality and degree of resistance. J Homosexual. 2008; 55(3), 533-544. doi: 10.1080/ 00918360802345339
Franslow, J, Robinson, E. Prevalence of child sexual abuse reported by a cross-sectional sample of New Zealand women. Child Abuse Negl. 2007; 31(9), 935-945. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.009
Bornstein, B, Kaplan, D, Perry, A. Child abuse in the eyes of the beholder: Lay perceptions of child sexual and physical abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 2007; 31(4), 375-391. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.09.007
Briggs, S, Cheek, J. The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. J Pers. 1986; 54(1), 106-148. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1986.tb00391.x
White, B, Robinson Kurpius, S. Effects of victim sex and sexual orientation on perceptions of rape. Sex Roles. 2002; 46(5-6), 191-200. doi: 10.1023/A:1019617920155
Struckman-Johnson, C, Struckman-Johnson, D. Acceptance of male rape myths among college men and women. Sex Roles. 1992; 27(3-4), 85-100. doi: 10.1007/BF00290011
Campbell, J. Labs, fields and straw issues. In: Locke, EA, editor. Generalizing from laboratory to field settings. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books; 1986.
Greenberg, J. The college sophomore as guinea pig: Setting the record straight. Acad Manage Rev. 1987; 12(1), 157-159.
Locke, E. Generalizing from laboratory to field: Ecological validity or abstraction of essential elements. In: Locke, EA editors. Generalizing from laboratory to field settings. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books; 1986.
Oaks, W. External validity and the use of real people as subjects. Am Psychol. 1972; 27(10), 959-962.
Romano, E, De Luca, R. Male sexual abuse: A review of effects, abuse characteristics, and links with later psychological functioning. Aggress Violent Behav. 2001; 6(1), 55-78. doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(99)00011-7
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.