The Study of Vietnamese Bonechar Synthesis and its Applications in Removal Organic Color

Nguyen Van Son, Vo Thanh Cong, Do Quy Diem, Tran Tan Nhat


Biochar was synthesized from two material sources such as animal waste or plant waste. In this work, biochar was synthesized going from bovine bone waste at Vietnam country, called as Vietnamese bone char (VNBC). Many steps of process to VNBC synthesis, and its surface characteristics were investigated, respectively. The applications of VNBC being as adsorbents were examined then. The results of synthesis process were obtained the VNBC product sample with optimal condition to be at temperature of 650 oC, corresponding to 120 minutes. The analysis on surface properties of VNBC indicated that the specific surface area were 120.315 m2/g, with pore diameter as 87.48 Å measured by BJH (Barrett, Joyner and Halenda) method. The surface morphology with the particle size measured by SEM (Scanning Electronic Spectroscopy) method was 70 nm. The composition compounds of VNBC contained calcium carbonate-hydroxyl apatite with the formula was Ca10(PO4)5.65(CO3)0.64(OH)3.45 measured by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy) methods, respectively. In application, VNBC uses at optimal condition as an adsorbent to remove the organic color solutions for instance KMnO4 and methylene blue (MB) were considered. The results of VNBC adsorbent to remove the colored solutions measured by UV/VIS (Ultraviolet Visible spectroscopy) method are obtained with adsorption capacity of KMnO4 as from 33.51 to 46.22 mg color/g BC, and MB from 12.1 to 15.04 mg color/g BC, respectively. These results shown that VNBC were able to use making a potential adsorbent in the treatment of wastewater contained organic color in industry.


Bovine bone waste, VNBC synthesis, Adsorbent, Organic color solution

Full Text:



Bawa, K.J.K.S.K.R.A.S. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review, J Food Sci Technol, vol. 49, pp. 278-293, 2012.

Omole, A.S.O. D. O. An evaluation of slaughterhouse wastes in south-west Nigeria, American Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 2, pp. 85-89, 2013.

Edwin Ambani AmesoS.A.B. Charles Owuor Olu, ngah and Tobias Haller, Ethnography of the slaughterhouse: A case of Nanyuki slaughterhouse in Laikipia County, Rift Valley, Kenya, Ameso et al. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7, pp. 32, 2017.

Nasser, M.S.K. Omran, A.M. Faheem A. Sheikh, Hak Yong Kim, Extraction of pure natural hydroxyapatite from the bovine bones bio waste by three different methods, journal of materials processing technology, vol. 209, pp. 3408-3415, 2009.

Nazia Bano, S.S.J. Hatijah Basri, A.H.N. Sharifah Adzila S. Abu Bakar, Natural Hydroxyapatite Extracted From Bovine Bo, Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 22-28, 2017.

Ammara Kaynata, I.A.M.A.R.K. Ashfaque Pathand, Dr. Health & environmental impacts of slaughter houses’ condition on society – a case study of hyderabad city, 4th International Conference on Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, 2018.

Al Dufour, J.B. Robert Bos and Victor Gannon, Animal Waste, Water Quality and Human Health, Published by IWA Publishing, London, UK. ISBN: 9781780401232, 2012.

Mirona Palczewska-Komsa, A.W. Anna Stogiera, Dariusz Chlubek, Jadwiga Buczkowska-Radlińska, Barbara Wiszniewska Szczecin, Animals in biomonitoring studies of environmental fluoride pollution, Research review Fluoride, vol. 49, pp. 279-292, 2016.

Shrikant B. P.K. Katole, R.D.P. Environmental pollutants and livestock health: a review, Environmental pollutants and livestock health: a review, vol. 1, pp. 1-13, 2013.

Abbas Rezaee, Hossin-Ali Rangkooy, Ali Khavanin, Ahmad Jonidi-Jafari, Cheshma, Soltani, R.D. Nili-Ahmadabadi, A. Adsorption Properties and Breakthrough Model of Formaldehyde on Bone Char, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, vol. 2, 2011.

Ikuo Abe, Satoshi Iwasaki, Toshimitsu Tokimoto, Naohito Kawasaki, Takeo Nakamura, Tanada, A.S. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto carbonaceous materials, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 275, pp. 35-39, 2004.

Nahum A. Medellin-Castillo, Roberto Leyva-Ramos, Raul Ocampo-Perez, Ramon F. Garcia de la Cruz, Antonio Aragon-Pin, Jose M. Martinez-Rosales, Rosa M. Guerrero-Coronado, a.L. Fuentes-Rubio, Adsorption of Fluoride from Water Solution on Bone Char, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 46, pp. 9205-9212, 2007.

Adsorption Kinetics Modeling of A Red Azo Dye Onto Bone Char, Mater thesis, 2013.

Olaniyi, I. Moses, Odoh, S.a.R. Adsorption study of Cr (VI) and Pb (II) from aqueous solution using animal charcoal derived from cow bone, Der Chemica Sinica, vol. 3, pp. 648-657, 2012.

Abbas Rezaee, M.R. Ghader Ghanizadeh, Afshin Nili-Ahmadabadi, Adsorption of Escherichia coli Using Bone Char, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, vol. 15, pp. 57-62, 2011.

Netzer, A. Hughes, D.E. Adsorption of copper, lead and cobalt by activated carbon, Water Res, 18: 927 - 933, 1984.

Amir Hajialia, G.P.P. Evaluation of Turbidity and Color Removal in Treatment of Wastewater Containing Resistant Pollutants with Ozonation, IERI Procedia, vol. 9, pp. 8 – 12, 2014.

Juan Carlos Moreno, R.G .L. Giraldo, Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal, Materials, vol. 3, pp. 452-466, 2010.

Pan, X. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Sorption of cobalt to bone char: Kinetics, competitive sorption and mechanism, Desalination, vol. 249, pp. 609-614, 2009.

Yun-Nen Chen, Li-Yuan Chai, Y.-D. Shu, Study of arsenic (V) adsorption on bone char from aqueous solution, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 160, pp. 168-172, 2008.

Kaseva, M.E. Optimization of regenerated bone char for fluoride removal in drinking water: a case study in Tanzania, Journal of Water and Health, vol. 04, 2006.

Yothin Mutchimadilok, Sunisa Smittakorn, Surat Mongkolnchai-arunya, Durnford, A. D. Defluoridation with Locally Produced Thai Bone Char, Advances in Environmental Chemistry, vol. 9, 2014.

Jha.W.G. Sangeeta Patel, Surface Chemistry and Textural characterization of activated carbon prepared from animal bone chars, using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent, Chem Sci Rev Lett, vol. 4, pp. 821-826, 2015.

Sudhakar M. Rao, Venkatarama Reddy, B.V. Lakshmikanth, S. Ambika, N.S. Re-use of fluoride contaminated bone char sludge in concrete, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 166, pp. 751-756, 2009.

Shi-Bao Chen, Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi-Bing Ma, G. McKay, Effect of bone char application on Pb bioavailability in a Pb-contaminated soil, Environmental Pollution, vol. 139, pp. 433-439, 2006.

Xiaohua Wang, N.L. Yunguo Liu, Luhua Jiang, Guangming Zeng, Xiaofei Tan, Shaobo Liu, Zhihong Yin, Sirong Tian, and Jiang Li, Adsorption Removal of 17-Estradiol fromWater by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 14, pp. 1213, 2017.

Agnieszka Sobczak, Z. K. Zbigniew Wzorek, Preparation of hydroxyapatite from animal bones, Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, vol. 11, pp. 4, 2009.

Jacobsen, P. Dahi, E. Copenhagen, Denmark, Charcoal packed furnace for low-tech charring of bone, 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water, pp.151-155, 2006.

Faheem A. Sheikh, M.A.K. Javier Macossay, Muneeb A. Muhammad, Travis Cantu, Nasser A. M. Barakat, and Hak Yong Kim, Fabrication of Mineralized Collagen from Bovine Waste Materials by Hydrothermal Method as Promised Biomaterials, J Biomater Tissue Eng., vol.1, pp. 2, 2011.

Nasser A.M. Barakata, Myung Seob Khila, A.M. Omrand, Extraction of pure natural hydroxyapatite from the bovine bones bio waste by three different methods, journal of materials processing technology, vol. 2 0 9, no. pp. 3408–3415, 2009.

Lgjapph, Elliott Barrett, P. The Determination of Pore Volume and Area Distributions in Porous Substances. I. Computations from Nitrogen Isotherms, the volume and area distribution in porous substances, vol. 73, 2015, 1951.

Heael. Stephebnr Unauerp, Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers, contributiofrno m the bureauof chemistrayn d sons and georgew ashingtounn iversi, pp. 60, 1938.

Yanyan Chen, C.Z. Maria Mastalerz, Suyun Hu, Carley Gasaway and Xiaowan Tao, Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences—A Review, Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 16, pp. 30223–30250, 2015.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.