Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol using Modified Rice Husks: Kinetics, Isotherms and Thermodynamics Studies
Keywords:Rice husk, phenol, KMnO4, adsorption
The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents was investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing organic compound from aqueous solutions. Modified rice husks MRI, MR2 and MR3 prepared by chemical oxidation with different concentration of KMnO4 (0.05, 0.08 and 0.1M) were used as an adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, initial phenol concentration. Four simplified adsorption isotherms including Langmuir, Freundlich, D-R and Redlich Peterson were selected to follow the adsorption process. The pseudo-second-order model described the adsorption kinetics well. Intra-particle diffusion process was identified the main mechanism controlling the rate of phenol sorption. Thermodynamics parameters showed that the adsorption of phenol onto modified rice husk was spontaneous and exothermic. The modified rice husks were characterized using TG, DTA, SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The study conducted that modified rice husk can be a good adsorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution.
Nayak P.S. and B.k. Singh, Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by sorption on low cost clay, Desalinating, 207, 71-79, 2007.
Ocampo â€“ Perez R., R. Leyva-Ramos, J. Mendoza-Barron and R.M. Guerrero-Coronado, Adsorption rate of phenol from aqueous solution onto organobentonite: Surface diffusion and kinetic models, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 364, 195-204, 2011 .
Calace, N., E. Nardi, B.M. Petronio and M. Pietroletti, Adsorption of phenols by papermill sludges, Environ. Pollut., 118, 315-319, 2002 .
Busca G., S. Beradinelli, C. Resini and L. Arrighib, Technologeis for the removal of phenol from fluid streams: A short review of recent developments, J. Hazard. Mater., 160, 265-288, 2008.
Ahmaruzzamam, M., and D.K. Sharma, Adsorption of phenols from wastewater, J. Colloide Interface Sci., 287, 14-24, 2005.
Amin, N.A.S., J. Akhtar and H.K. Rai, Screening of combined zeolite-ozone system for phenol and COD removal, Chem. Eng. J., 158, 520-527, 2010.
El-Ashtoukhy E.S.Z., Y.A. El-Taweel, O. Abdelwahab and E.M. Nassef, Treatment of petrochemical wastewater containing phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation using a fixed bed electrochemical reactor, Int., J. Electrochem. Sci., 8, 1534-1550, 2013 .
Burghoff, B. and A.B. de Haan, Liquid-liquid equilibrium study of phenol extraction with cyanex 923, Sep. Sci. Technol., 44, 1753-1771, 2009.
BÃ³delo, A., E. GÃ³mez, A.M. Hidalgo, M. GÃ³mez, M.D. Murcia and I. LÃ³pez, Nanofiltration membranes to reduce phenol concentration in wastewater. Desalination, 245, 680-686, 2009.
Liu, Q.S., T. Zheng, P. Wang, J.P. Jiang and N. Li, Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and mechanism studies of some substituted phenols on activated carbon fibers, Chem. Eng. J., 157 (2-3), 348-356, 2010.
Srivastava, V.C., I.D. Mall and I.M. Mishra, Adsorption thermodynamics and isosteric heat of adsorption of toxic metal ions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) and rice husk ash (RHA), Chem Eng. J., 132, 267-278, 2007.
Bable, S. and T.A. Kurniawan, Low-cost adsorbent for heavy metals uptake for contaminated water, A review J. Hazard. Mater., 97, 219-243, 2003.
El-Said A.G., N.A. Badawy and S.E. German, Adsorption of cadmium (II) and mercury (II) on to natural adsorbent rice husk and ash (RHA) from aqueous solutions, study in single and binary system, Journal of American Science, 6 (12), 400-409, 2010.
Safa, Y. and H.N. Bhatti, Adsorptive removal of direct dyes by low cost rice husk, effect of treatments and modification, African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(16), 3128-3142, 2011.
El-Maghraby A. and H.A. El-Deeb, Removal of a basic dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using rice hulls" Global NEST Journal, 13(1), 90-98, 2011.
Chuah T.G., A. Jumasiah, I. Azni and S. Katayon, Rice husk as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for heavy metal and dye removal: an overview, Desalination 175, 305-316, 2005.
Mahvi. A.H., A. Maleki, and A. Eslami, Potential of rice husk and rice husk ash for phenol removal in aqueous system, American J. Appl. Sci., 1(4), 321-326, 2004.
Ndazi B.S., S. Karlsson, J.V. Tesha and C.W. Nyahumwa, Chemical and physical modifications of rice husks for use as composite panels, composites: Part A, 38, 925-935, 2007.
Daffalla S.B., H. Mukhtar and M.S. Shaharun, Effect of organic and inorganic acid pretreatment on structural properties of rice husk and adsorption mechanism of phenol. International J. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 3(3), 192-200, 2012.
Javed S.H., S. Naveed, N. Feroze and M. Kazmi, Extraction silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate, Pak J. Agri. Sci., 45(4), 459-462, 2008.
Tarley C.T., S.C. Ferreira and M.Z. Arruda, Use of modified rice husks as a natural solid adsorbent of trace metals: characterization and development of an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination by FAAS, Microchem. J., 77, 163-175, 2004.
Bansal M., U. Garg, D. Singh and V. K. Garg, Removal of Cr (V1) from aqueous solutions using pre-consumer processing agricultural waste: A case study of rice husk, J. Hazard. Mater., 162, 312-320, 2009.
Srivastava V.C., I.D. Mal and I.M. Mishra, Characterization of mesoporous rice husk ash (RHA) and adsorption kinetics of metal ions from aqueous solution onto RHA, J. Hazard Mater., B134, 257-267, 2006.
Javed S., S. Naveed, N. Feroze, M. Zafar and M. Deary, Quality improvement amorphous silica by using KMnO4, J. Qual. Technol. Manage., 4, 2008.
Paya J. Monza and M.V. Borrachero, "Determination of amorphous silica in rice husk ash by rapid analytical method", Cement and Concrete Research 31, 227-231, 2001.
Natarajan E. 1998. "Overview of combustion and gasification of rice husk in fluidized bed reactors" Biomass and Bioenergy, 14, 533-546, 1998 .
Torley C.R.T. and M.A.Z. Arruda, Biosorption of heavy metals using rice milling by products. Characterization and application for removal of metals from aqueous effluents, Chemosphere, 54, 987-995, 2004.
Imyim A. and E. Prapaimrungsi, Humic acid removal from water by aminoprophyl functionalized rice husk ash. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184, 775-781, 2012.
Rozainee M., S. Nogo, A. Salama, K. Tan, M. Ariffin and Z. Zainura, Effect of fluidizing velocity on the combustion of rice husk in a Benc. Scale fluidiesed bed combustor for production of amorphous rice husk, Bioresour. technol., 99, 703-713, 2008 .
Mohd Salleh M.A., D.K. Mahmoud, W.A. Wan Abdulkarim and A. Idris, Cationic and anionic dye adsorption by agricultural solid wastes: a comprehensive review, Desalination, 280, 1-13, 2011.
Cardoso N.F., E.C. Lima, I.S. Pinto, C.V. Amavisca, B. Royer, R.B. Pinto, W.S. Alencar and S.F.P. Pereira, Application of cupuassu shell as biosorbent for the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solution, J. Environ. Manage., 92, 1237-1247, 2011.
Guocheng L., H. Jiao, L. Liu, M. Hongwen, F. Quinfang, W.U. Limei, , W. Mingquan and Z. Yiha, The adsorption of phenol by lignite activated carbon, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 19(3), 380-385, 2011.
Lagergren, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe, kungliga svenskapsaka demienes, Hand linger, 24, 1-39, 1898.
Kennedy J.L., J.J. Vijaya, K. Kayalvizhi and G. Sekaran, Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions using mesoporous carbon prepared by two-stage process, Chemical Engineering Journal, 132, 279-287, 2007.
Langmuir I., Adsorption of gases on plain surfaces of glass mica platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40, 1361-1403, 1918.
Low K.S., and C.K. Lee, Quaternized rice husk as adsorbent for reactive dyes, Bioresource Tehcnol., 121, 121-125, 1997.
Freundlich H., Adsorption in solution, Z. Phys. Chemi., 57, 384-470, 1906.
Kermani M., H. Pourmoghaddas, B. Bina and Z. Khazaei, â€œRemoval of Phenol from Aqueous solutions by Rice Husk Ash and Activated Carbonâ€, Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 9 (10): 1905-1910, 2006.
Chowdhury S. and P. Saha, Sea shell powder as a new adsorbent to remove Basic Green 4 (Malchite Green) from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Chemical Engineering Journal, 164, 168-177, 2010.
Wu F.-C., B.-L. Liu, and K.-T. Wu Tseny, A new linear form analysis of Redlich Peterson isotherm equation for the adsorption of dyes, Chemical Engineering Journal, 162, 21-27, 2010.
Xinbo Wu, K.N. Hui, K.S. Hui, S.K. Lee, W. Zhou, R. Cheon, D.H. Hwang, Y.R. Cho and Y.G. Son, Adsorption of basic yellow 87 from aqueous solution onto two different mesoporous adsorbents, Chemical Engineering Journal, 180, 91-98, 2012.
John Kemnedy, L., J. Judith Vijaya, K. Kayalvizhi and G. Sekaran, Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions using mesoporous carbon prepared by two-stage process, Chemical Engineering Journal, 132, 279-287, 2007.
Aydin, H., and G., Baysal, Adsorption of acid dyes in aqueous solutions by shells of bittim (Pistechia Khinjuk Stocks), Desalination, 196, 248-259, 2006.
Demiral, H., and G., GÃ¼ndÃ¼zoÄŸlu, Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from sugar beet bagasse, Bioresource Technology, 101, 1675-1680, 2010.
Mondal, N. K., R. Bhaumik, B. Das, P. Roy, T.K. Datta, S. Blattacharyya and S. Bhattacharjee, Neutral network model & isotherm study for removal of phenol from aqueous solution by orange peel ash, Applied water science, 2014, DOI. 10.1007/s 13201-014-0188-4.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.