Effect of Calcination Time on Bovine-Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Implant Material: An <em>In Vitro </em>Study

Authors

  • Jojorlamsihar Manalu Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Atma Jaya University
  • Francisca Tjhay Departement of Medical Biology School of Medicine and Health Sciences Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
  • Theodora Kristoforus Departement of Medical Biology School of Medicine and Health Sciences Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v8i5.6363

Keywords:

Hydroxyapatite, Bovine bones, Thermal decomposition, Toxicity

Abstract

Bone fracture incidence has been increasing, according to recent studies. For a fracture to heal, orthopedic implants are usually employed. One of the bioceramics used is hydroxyapatite (HAp), which has a similar chemical structure with bone mineral and is biocompatible, bioactive as well as non-toxic to the human body. Current methods of HAp synthesis are mostly still toxic to the human body and expensive. Hydroxyapatite originated from natural resources can provide more favorable materials. The purpose of this study is to characterize HAp extracted from bovine bone calcination at 850°C for various holding times as bone implant material. The toxicity of the bovine-derived HAp is also assessed. Prepared bovine bones were subjected to calcination at 850°C over various holding times. The characterization was carried out with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) instrument followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT- IR). The toxicity of the bovine HAp was assessed using MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Each of the parameters was compared between the HAp extracted from bovine and the commercial HAp. Analysis of the phase, purity, and crystallinity showed that the bovine-derived HAp was similar to the standard HAp. Crystal agglomeration was observed at increased calcination time. The optimal holding time of 5 hours was demonstrated through the closest Ca/P ratio (1.679) to the stoichiometric HAp (Ca/P ratio = 1.67) in EDX analysis. The toxicity test using the MTT assay showed that the viabilities of CPAE cells treated with bovine HAp were well above 60% (non-toxic threshold). In conclusion, hydroxyapatite produced from bovine bone calcination at 850°C with 5 hours of holding time has the characteristics which are similar to the commercial HAp. This natural HAp has proven to be non-toxic and also cost-effective.

 

Author Biography

Jojorlamsihar Manalu, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Atma Jaya University

References

Graham, A., Solomon, L., Buku Ajar Ortopedi dan Fraktur Sistem Apley Edisi 7, Widya Medika, Jakarta, 1997.

Triono, P., Murinto, “Aplikasi Pengolahan Citra Untuk Mendeteksi Fraktur Tulang Dengan Metode Deteksi Tepi Canny”, Jurnal Informatika, vol. 9, no. 4, 2015.

Brydone, A.S., Meek, D., Maclaine, S., “Bone grafting, orthopedic biomaterials, and the clinical need for bone engineering”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, vol. 224, no.12, pp.1329-1343, 2010.

Schmalz, G., Arenholt-Bindslev, D., Biocompatibility of dental materials, Springer, Berlin, 2009.

Manivasagam, G., Dhinasekaran, D., Rajamanickam, A., “Biomedical Implants: Corrosion and its Prevention - A Review”, Recent Patents on Corrosion Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.40-54, 2010.

Aksakal, B., Yildirim, Ö. S., Gul, H., “Metallurgical failure analysis of various implant materials used in orthopedic applications”, Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.17-23, 2004.

Fathi, M.H., Hanifi A., Mortazavi V., “Preparation And Bioactivity Evaluation Of Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Nanopowder”, Journal Of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 202, pp. 536-542, 2008.

Barakat, N.A.M., Khil, M.S., Omran, A.M., Sheikh, F.A., Kim, H.Y., “Extraction of pure natural hydroxyapatite from the bovine bones biowaste by three different methods”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 209, no. 7, pp. 3408-3415, 2009.

Zhou, H., Lee, J., “Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering”, Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 2769-2781, 2011.

Ferraz, M.P., Monteiro, F.J., Manuel, C.M., “Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles : A review of preparation methodologies”, Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics, vol. 2, pp. 74-80, 2004.

Ooi, C. Y., Hamdi, M., Ramesh, S., “Properties of hydroxyapatite produced by annealing of bovine bone”, Ceram. Int., vol. 33, pp. 1171-1177, 2007.

Dachun, L., Wei, C., “Preparation and characterization of natural hydroxyapatite from animal hard tissues”, Key Eng. Mat., vol. 342, pp. 343, 2007.

Ivankovic, H., Gallego Ferrer, G., Tkalcec, E., Orlic, S., Ivankovic, M., “Preparation of highly porous hydroxyapatite from cuttlefish bone”, J. Mater. Sci.-Mater. Med., vol. 20, pp. 1039-1046, 2009.

Ruksudjarit, A., Pengpat, K., Rujijanagul, G., Tunkasiri, T., “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from natural bovinebone”, Current Applied Physics, vol. 8, pp. 270-272, 2008.

Hilmi, I., Rinastiti, M., Herliansyah, M.K., “Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite from local Bovine Bones for Biomedical Application”, In International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication, Information Technology and Biomedical Engineering, Bandung, Indonesia, 2011.

Tan, L., Yu, X., Wan, P., Yang, K., “Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repairs: A Review”, J Mater Sci Technol., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 503-313, 2013.

Manalu, J.L., Soegijono, B., Indriani, D.J., “Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Derived from Bovine Bone”, Asian J Appl Sci., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 6299-6310, 2015.

Andy, A.P., “Ekstraksi dan karakterisasi hidroksiapatit dari limbah kerajinan tulang sapi”, Bachelor (thesis), Bali: Univesitas Udayana, 2015. Available from: http://erepo.unud.ac.id/9316/.

Koutsopoulos, S., “Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: A review study on the analytical methods”, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., vol. 62, pp. 600-612, 2002.

Downloads

Published

2020-10-30

How to Cite

Manalu, J., Tjhay, , F. ., & Theodora Kristoforus. (2020). Effect of Calcination Time on Bovine-Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Implant Material: An <em>In Vitro </em>Study. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(5). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v8i5.6363