Growth and Habitat Preference of <i>Acacia decurrens</i> Willd. (Fabaceae) after the 2010 Eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia


  • Whisnu Febry Afrianto Bogor Agricultural University
  • Agus Hikmat
  • Didik Widyatmoko


Acacia decurrens, growth, habitat preference, restoration


Succession of Mount Merapi supported the spread of invasive species. Mount Merapi after the eruption in 2010 was dominated by Acacia decurrens. This research was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 at locations that heavily damaged by the eruption such as Cangkringan and Kemalang Resort. All of sample units were taken using random sampling. Analysis of vegetation in plot observations were made using line transect with length of line 20 x 200 m and direction perpendicular to the contour. Morphometric variables of two habitats were carried out such as diameter at breast height (dbh), basal area, height, and volume. Habitat preference was calculated using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) in PAST 3.06. A. decurrens population after 5 years eruption has reached the level of growth poles. High density condition of A. decurrens was predicted to be able to disturb the growth of other species. Habitat preference of A. decurrens strongly correlated with temperature and slope conditions. The study about the growth condition and habitat preference of A. decurrens are important for management area and restoration program.

Author Biography

Whisnu Febry Afrianto, Bogor Agricultural University

Department of Tropical Biodiversity Conservation


• Al Wakeel SAM, Gabr MA, Hamid AA, Abu El Soud WM, “Allelopathic effects of Acacia nilotica leaf residue on Pisum sativum Lâ€, Allelopathy Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 411-412, 2007.

• Bashir HS, “Some observations on the effect of forest tree species on ground vegetation at Pabbi Forest, Kharianâ€. Pakistan Journal of Forestryâ€, vol. 41, pp. 173–177, 1991.

• Brown J, Enright NJ, Miller BP, “Seed production and germination in two rare and three common co-occurring Acacia species from south-east Australiaâ€, Austral Ecology, vol. 28, pp. 271–280, 2003.

• Caesariantika E, Kondo T, Nakagoshi N, “Impact of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del invasion on plant species diversity in the Bekol Savanna, Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesiaâ€, Tropics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 45-53, 2011.

• Cain SA, “The species-area curveâ€, American Midland Naturalist, vol. 19, pp. 573–581, 1938.

• Chou CH, Fu CY, Li SY, Wang YF, “Allelopathic potential of Acacia confusa and related species in Taiwanâ€, Journal of Chemical Ecoloogy, vol 24, pp 2131–2150, 1998.

• Danthu P, Ndongo M, Diaou M, Thiam O, Sarr A, Dedhiou B, Vall OM, “Impact of bush fire on germination of some West African acaciasâ€, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 173, pp. 1-10, 2003.

• Dendang B, Handayani W, “Struktur dan komposisi tegakan hutan di Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Jawa Baratâ€, Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon,, vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 691-695, 2015.

• Dennill GB, Donnelly D, “Biological control of Acacia longifolia and related weed spesies (Fabaceae) in South Africaâ€. Agriculture, Ecosystem, & Environment, vol. 37, no. 1-3, pp. 115-135, 1991.

• Desitarani, Wiridinata H, Miyakawa H, Rachman I, Rugayah, Sulistyo, Partomihardjo T, Buku Panduan Jenis-Jenis Tumbuhan Restorasi, JICA, Indonesian Institute of Science, Directorate General of Forest Protetion and Nature Conservation, Indonesia, 2014.

• Djufri, “Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del. dan Permasalahannya di Taman Nasional Baluran Jawa Timurâ€, Biodiversitas, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 96-104, 2004.

• El Ayeb A, Jannet BH, Shikiri FH, “Effects of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of four crop and weed plantsâ€, Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. 37, pp. 305-314, 2013.

• El Khawas S, Shehata MM, “The allelopathic potentialities of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus rostrata on monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)â€, Plant Biotechnology, vol. 4, no.. 1, pp. 23-24, 2005.

• Fowler J, Cohen L, Jarvis P, Practical statistics for field biology 2th Ed. John Willey & Sons, USA, 1989.

• [GMU] Gajah Mada Universitasy, Survey Kondisi Tumbuhan dan Satwa Liar Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi Paska Erupsi Tahun 2010. GMU and MMNP, Indonesia, 2011.

• González L, Souto XC, Reigosa MJ, “Allelopathic effects of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. phyllodes during their decompositionâ€. Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 77, pp. 53–63, 1995.

• Gunawan H, Heriyanto NM, Subiandono E, Mas'ud AF, Krisnawati H, “Invasi jenis eksotis pada areal terdegradasi pasca erupsi di Taman Nasional Gunung Merapiâ€, Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1027-1033, 2015.

• Hilman I, “Komposisi jenis dan struktur tegakan pada areal bekas tebangan di PT Salaki Summa Sejahtera, Provinsi Sumatera Baratâ€, Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 155-160, 2012.

• Hoffman JH, Impson FAC, Moran VC, Donnelly D, “Biological control of invasive golden wattle trees (Acacia pycnantha) by a gall wasp, Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in South Africaâ€, Biological Control, 25, 64-73, 2002.

• Ismail NAN, Metali F, “Allelopathic effects of invasive Acacia mangium on germination a growth of local paddy varietiesâ€, Journal of Agronomy, vol. 2014, pp. 1-11, 2014.

• Jadhav BB, Gaynar DG, “Allelopathic effects of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn on germination of rice and cowpeaâ€, Indian Journal Plant Physiology, vol. 35, pp. 86–89, 1992.

• Kamel M and Hammad SA, “The allelopathic effect of the exotic tree Acacia saligna on the germination of wheat and canolaâ€, Ecologia Balkanica, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 103-112, 2015.

• Lorenzo P, Gonzalez, Reigosa MJ, “The genus Acacia as invader: the characteristic case of Acacia dealbata Link in Europeâ€, Ann. For. Sci, vol. 67, no. 101, pp. 1-11, 2010.

• Lorenzo P, Pazos-Malvido E, González L, Reigosa MJ, “Allelopathic interference of invasive Acacia dealbata: physiological effectsâ€, Allelopathy Journal, vol. 22, pp. 452–462, 2008.

• Maslin BR, McDonald MW, Acacia Search Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for southern Australia. RIRDC, Australia, 2004.

• Meyer JY, Fourdrigniez M, “Conservation benefits of biological control: The recovery of a threatened plant subsequent to the introduction of a pathogen to contain an invasive tree speciesâ€, Biological Conservation, vol. 144, pp. 106–113, 2011.

• Meyer JY, Fourdrigniez M, “Restoring habitat for native and endemic plants through the introduction of a fungal pathogen to control the alien invasive tree Miconia calvescens in the island of Tahitiâ€, BioControl, vol. 57, pp. 191–198, 2012.

• [MMNP] Mount Merapi National Park, Survey kondisi tumbuhan dan satwa liar Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi pascaerupsi 2010, MMNP, Indonesia, 2011a.

• [MMNP] Mount Merapi National Park, Restorasi ekosistem Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi pascaerupsi 2010, Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, MMNP, Indonesia 2011b.

• Noumi Z, Chaieb M, “Allelopathic effect of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan in North Africaâ€, Pak. J. Bot, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 2801-2805, 2011.

• Pouteau R, Meyer JY, Larrue S, “Using range filling rather than prevalence of invasive plant species for management prioritization: the case of Spathodea campanulata in the Society Islands (South Pacific)â€, Ecological Indicator, vol. 54, pp. 87–95, 2015.

• Quddus MS, Bellairs SM, Wurm AS, “Acacia holosericea (Fabaceae) litter has allelopathic and physical effects on mission grass (Cenchrus pedicellatus and C. polystachios) (Poaceae) seedling establishmentâ€, Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 62, pp. 189–195, 2014.

• Rafiqul HATM, Ahmed R, Uddin MB, Hossain MK, “Allelopathic effect of different concentration of water extracts of Acacia auriculiformis leaf on some initial growth parameters of five common agricultural cropsâ€, Journal of Biological Science, vol. 2, pp. 92–100, 2003.

• Ramula S, Knight TM, Burns JH, Buckley YM, “General guidelines for invasive plant management based on comparative demography of invasive and native plant populationsâ€, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, pp. 1124–1133, 2008.

• Rajmanék M., Richardson DM, Pysék P, Vegetation Ecology 2th Ed, Maarel and Franklin J, Eds. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2013.

• Richardson DM, Kluge RL. “Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: Role in invasiveness and options for managementâ€, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol. 10, pp. 161–177, 2008.

• Scheiner SM, “Six types of species-area curvesâ€, Global Ecology & Biogeography vol. 12, pp. 441-447, 2003.

• Setyawati T, Suminto A. “Status regulation and challenges in risk assessment and management of invasive alien species in Indonesiaâ€, In Proceeding of the region seminar-workshop on harmonizing methods in risk assessment and management of forest invasive alien plant species in Southeast Asia.,†Fernandez JC, Shono K, Barret K, Eds. Bogor, Indonesia Desember 2-5, 2014, pp 74-80, 2015.

• Souto XC, Bolano JC, Gonzalez L, Reigosa MJ. “Allelopathic effects of tree species on some soil microbial populations and herbaceous plantsâ€, Biology Plantarum 44, pp. 269–275, 2001.

• Steenis GGGJ. Van, Flora Pegunungan Jawa. Kartwinata JA Eds, LIPI Pr, Bogor, 2006.

• Sunaryo, Girmansyah D, “Identifikasi tumbuhan asing invasif di Taman Nasional Tanjung Puting, Kalimantan Tengahâ€, Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1034-1039, 2015.

• Suryanto P, Hamzah MZ, Malias MA, Mohamed A. “Post-eruption species dynamic of Gunung Merapi National Park, Java, Indonesiaâ€, Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, vol. 7, pp. 49-57, 2010a.

• Suryanto P, Hamzah MZ, Alias MA, and Mohamed A, “Species diversity of Gunung Merapi National Park, Java, Indonesia following 2006 eruptionâ€, Res Environ Life Sci, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2010b.

• Suryanto P, Hamzah MZ, Malias MA, Mohamed A, “The dynamic growth and standing stock of Acacia decurrens following the 2006 eruption in Gunung Merapi National Park, Java, Indonesiaâ€, International Journal of Biology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 165-170, 2010c.

• Suryawan D, Sutyarto E, Umaya R, Kurnia A, Hadiyan Y, “Sebaran spesies asing invasif Acacia decurrens di kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Merapiâ€, Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 738-742, 2015.

• Sutomo, Hobbs R, Cramer V, “Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposits following the 2006 nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows) of Mount Merapi: Diversity and floristic variationâ€, Biodiversitas, vol. 12, no 2, pp. 86-91, 2010.

• Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, 2005, “Inventory of the invasive alient plant species in Indonesiaâ€, Biotropia, vol. 25, pp. 60 – 73.

• Vijayan V, “Evaluation for allelopathic impact of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L), a widely cultivated Indian crop speciesâ€, Res. J. Agriculture and Forestry Sci. vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2015

• Walker LR, Velázquez E, Shiels AB, “Applying lessons from ecological succession to the restoration of landslidesâ€, Plant Soil, vol. 324, pp. 157–168, 2009.

• Widarjono A, Analisis Statistika Multivariat Terapan, YKPN, Indonesia, 2010.




How to Cite

Afrianto, W. F., Hikmat, A., & Widyatmoko, D. (2017). Growth and Habitat Preference of <i>Acacia decurrens</i> Willd. (Fabaceae) after the 2010 Eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(1). Retrieved from