A Review of Plants’ Flowering Physiology: The Control of Floral Induction by Juvenility, Temperature and Photoperiod in Annual and Ornamental Crops


  • Tuan Minh Ha Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam.


Flowering, juvenility, temperature, vernalization, photoperiod.


Recent market demands have led to extended cropping seasons and off-season production of various plant species, especially ornamental plants. Understanding of genetic control of flowering, developmental stages and environmental requirements of crops is important to develop appropriate production guidelines and novel varieties. This paper presents a review of some main factors, including juvenility, vernalization, photoperiod and their interactions in control of flowering in plants. Length of juvenile stage may vary among species. Understanding of juvenility may help define appropriate time when they can perceive external stimuli for efficient flower induction and subsequent development. Based on the requirements and responses to temperature and photoperiods for floral initiation, plant species are categorized into different groups. Modifications of temperature range and/or vernalization, duration and regimes in accordance with day-lengths at receptive stage would be important techniques to produce flowers at a desired time of the year. In addition, genetic modifications applied in breeding together with some cultivation techniques to regulate flowering time in some crops are also discussed in this paper.

Author Biography

Tuan Minh Ha, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam.

Faculty of Agronomy, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture & Forestry, Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam.


• ACPET. 2007. Botany II: Flower physiology. In Photoperiodism. Australian Council of Private Education and Training Queensland.

• Amasino RM. 2005. Vernalization and flowering time. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16(2): 154-158.

• Anderson NO (ed). 2007. Flower Breeding and Genetics Springer: Dordrecht.

• Bäurle I, Dean C. 2006. The timing of developmental transitions in plants. Cell 125(4): 655-664.

• Bunker KV. 1995. Year-round production of Australian daisies (Asteraceae) as flowering potplants. Scientia Horticulturae 61(1-2): 101-113.

• Cave RL, Birch CJ, Hammer GL, Erwin JE, Johnston ME. 2011. Juvenility and flowering of Brunonia australis (Goodeniaceae) and Calandrinia sp.(Portulacaceae) in relation to vernalization and daylength. Annals of botany 108(1): 215-220.

• Cave RL, Johnston ME. 2010. Vernalization promotes flowering of a heat tolerant Calandrinia while long days replace vernalization for early flowering of Brunonia. Scientia Horticulturae 123(3): 379-384.

• Cavins TJ, Dole JM. 2001. Photoperiod, juvenility, and high intensity lighting affect flowering and cut stem qualities of Campanula and Lupinus. Hortscience 36(7): 1192-1196.

• Damann MP, Lyons RE. 1993. Juvenility, flowering and the effects of a limited inductive photoperiod in Coreopsis grandiflora and C. landceolata. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118(4): 513-518.

• Eckardt NA. 2005. A time to grow, a time to flower. Plant Cell 17(10): 2615-2617.

• Emsweller SL, Borthwick HA. 1937. Effects of short periods of low temperature on flower production in stocks (Matthiola). Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 35: 755-757.

• Erwin J. 2009. Looking for new ornamentals: flowering studies. Acta Horticulturae(813): 61-66.

• Finnegan EJ, Genger RK, Kovac K, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES. 1998. DNA methylation and the promotion of flowering by vernalization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95(10): 5824-5829.

• Finnegan EJ, Kovac KA, Jaligot E, Sheldon CC, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES. 2005. The downregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression in plants with low levels of DNA methylation and by vernalization occurs by distinct mechanisms. Plant Journal 44(3): 420-432.

• Fisher MJ. 1999. Crop growth and development: flowering physiology. Forage seed production. Volume 2: Tropical and subtropical species.: 81-92.

• Gavino RJ. 2005. Daylength and Temperature in Relation to Flowering Orchids. http://www.orchidsafari.org/rotor/photperiod.html [08 April 2009].

• Gleichsner JA, Appleby AP. 1996. Effects of vernalization on flowering in ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus). Weed Science 44(1): 57-62.

• Goodwin PB, Dunstan P, Watt P. 1995. The control of flowering in Blandfordia grandiflora. Scientia Horticulturae 62: 175-187.

• Ha TM, Johnston ME. 2013. The Effect of Low Temperature on Flowering of Rhodanthe Floribunda. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 1(5): 205-209.

• Ha TM, Krisantini S, Johnston ME. 2013. The Effect of Photoperiod and Temperature on Flowering of Pycnosorus Thompsonianus. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences 1(5): 252-257.

• Han T, Wu C, Mentreddy RS, Zhao J, Xu X, Gai J. 2005. Post-flowering photoperiod effects on reproductive development and agronomic traits of long-day and short-day crops. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191(4): 255-262.

• Hare MD, Wongpichet K, Saengkham M, Thummasaeng K, Suriyajantratong W. 2001. Juvenility and long-short day requirement in relation to flowering of Paspalum atratum in Thailand. Tropical Grasslands 35(3): 139-143.

• Hopkins WG, Huner NPA (eds). 2004. Introduction to Plant Physiology John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: London.

• Hopkins WG, Huner NPA. 2009. Introduction to Plant physiology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Son, Inc.: NJ.

• Horva´th E, Szalai G, Janda T, Pa´ldi E, Ra´cz I, La´sztity D. 2003. Effect of vernalisation and 5-azacytidine on the methylation level of DNA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Martonva´sa´r 15). Plant Science 165: 689 - 692.

• Hsu CY, Liu YX, Luthe DS, Yuceer C. 2006. Poplar FT2 shortens the juvenile phase and promotes seasonal flowering. Plant Cell 18(8): 1846-1861.

• Hu H-r, Hu X-l, Di W-w, Bao M-z. 2007. Studies on Juvenility and Limited Inductive Photoperiod of Petunia hybridaFantasy'. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 34(1): 179.

• Jung C, Müller AE. 2009. Flowering time control and applications in plant breeding. Trends in plant science 14(10): 563-573.

• Kawata J, Toyoda T, Uda M, Okimura M, Shibata M, Kameno T, Amano M, Nakamura Y, Matsuda T. 1987. Factors controlling the flowering time fo chrysanthemums. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Vegetables Ornamental Plants and Tea Series A(1): 187-222.

• Kim D-H, Doyle MR, Sung S, Amasino RM. 2009. Vernalization: winter and the timing of flowering in plants. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental 25: 277-299.

• King RW, Dawson IA, Speer SS. 1992. Control of growth and flowering in two Western Australian species of Pimelea. Australian Journal of Botany 40(3): 377-388.

• King RW, Pate JS, Johnston J. 1996. Ecotypic differences in the flowering of Pimelea ferruginea (Thymelaeaceae) in response to cool temperatures. Australian Journal of Botany 44(1): 47-55.

• King RW, Worrall R, Dawson IA. 2008. Diversity in environmental controls of flowering in Australian plants. Scientia Horticulturae 118(2): 161-167.

• Lee J, Lee I. 2010. Regulation and function of SOC1, a flowering pathway integrator. Journal of experimental botany 61(9): 2247-2254.

• Lokhande SD, Ogawa K, Tanaka A, Hara T. 2003. Effect of temperature on ascorbate peroxidase activity and flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes under different light conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 160(1): 57-64.

• Malik NSA, Bradford JM. 2004. Reciprocal grafting between early maturing and normal maturing olive varieties: preliminary effects on the nature of juvenility and flowering. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 2(2): 197-200.

• Markowski A, Ryka C. 1981. Effect of age of plants and other factors during vernalization on generative development of winter rape (Brassica-napus-Oleifera) under controlled growth conditions. Bulletin de l'Academie Polonaise des Sciences Serie des Sciences Biologiques 29(9-10): 415-422.

• McDonald MB, Kwong FY (eds). 2005. Flower seeds Biology and technology CABI publishing: Oxfordshire, UK.

• Michaels SD, Amasino RM. 2000. Memories of winter: vernalization and the competence to flower. Plant Cell and Environment 23(11): 1145-1153.

• Mott JJ, McComb AJ. 1975. Role of photoperiod and temperature in controlling phenology of 3 annual species from an arid region of Western Australia. Journal of Ecology 63(2): 633-641.

• Mouradov A, Cremer F, Coupland G. 2002. Control of flowering time interacting pathways as a basis for diversity. The Plant Cell Online 14(suppl 1): S111-S130.

• Nakatsuka T, Abe Y, Kakizaki Y, Kubota A, Shimada N, Nishihara M. 2009. Over-expression of Arabidopsis FT gene reduces juvenile phase and induces early flowering in ornamental gentian plants. Euphytica 168(1): 113-119.

• Ortiz Ferrara G, Mosaad MG, Mahalakshmi V, Rajaram S. 1998. Photoperiod and vernalisation response of Mediterranean wheats, and implications for adaptation. Euphytica 100(1-3): 377-384.

• Pearson S, Parker A, Hadley P, Kitchener HM. 1995. The effect of photoperiod and temperature on reproduction development of cape daisy (Osteospermum jucundum cv. 'Pink Whirls'. Scientia Horticulturae 62(4): 225-235.

• Pillitteri LJ, Lovatt CJ, Walling LL. 2004. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER homolog and its correlation with juvenility in citrus. Plant Physiology 135(3): 1540-1551.

• Ploeg Avd, Heuvelink E. 2006. The influence of temperature on growth and development of chrysanthemum cultivars: a review. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 81(2): 174-182.

• Ploeg Avd, Smid HG, Heuvelink E. 2005. Cultivar differences in temperature demand of cut chrysanthemum. Acta Horticulturae(691(Vol 1)): 91-97.

• Putterill J, Laurie R, Macknight R. 2004. It's time to flower: the genetic control of flowering time. Bioessays 26(4): 363-373.

• Ramin AA, Atherton JG. 1991. Manipulation of bolting and flowering in celery (Apium Graveolens L var dulce). 2. Juvenility. Journal of Horticultural Science 66(6): 709-717.

• Ratcliffe OJ, Kumimoto RW, Wong BJ, Riechmann JL. 2003. Analysis of the Arabidopsis MADS AFFECTING LOWERING Gene Family: MAF2 Prevents Vernalization by Short Periods of Cold. Plant Cell 15: 1159-1169.

• Runger W. 1975. Flower formation in Calceolaria X herbeohybrida Voss. Scientia Horticulturae 3(1): 45-64.

• Runger W. 1978. Influence of temperature and day length after chilling and short day period on the flowering of Calceolaria-herbeohybrida sexual hybrid. Scientia Horticulturae (Amsterdam) 9(1): 71-82.

• Runkle E, Heins R, Cameron A, Carson W. 2001. Photocontrol of flowering and stem extension of the intermediate-day plant Echinacea purpurea. Plant Physiology 112: 433 - 441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11473702 [08 April 2009].

• Samach A, Coupland G. 2000. Time measurement and the control of flowering in plants. Bioessays 22(1): 38-47.

• Searle I, Coupland G. 2004. Induction of flowering by seasonal changes in photoperiod. The EMBO Journal 23(6): 1217-1222.

• Sharman KV, Sedgley M, Aspinall D. 1989a. Effects of photoperiod, temperature and plant age on floral initiation and inflorescence quality in the Australian native Daisies Helipterum roseum and Helichrysum bracteatum in relation to cut-flower production. Journal of Horticultural Science 64(3): 351-359.

• Sharman KV, Sedgley M, Aspinall D. 1989b. Production of the Australian native daisies (Helipterum roseum and Helipchrysum bracteatum) for the cut flower market. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 29(3): 445-453.

• Sharman KV, Sedgley M, Aspinall D. 1990. Disruption by temperature of floweral evocation and cell-cycling in the shoot apical meristem of Helipterum-roseum (Asteraceae). Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(6): 629-640.

• Sung SB, Amasino RM. 2004. Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature 427(6970): 159-164.

• Taiz L, Zaiger E. 2006. Plant physiology (4th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Massachusetts.

• Tanigawa T, Kunitake T, Matsuno T, Yamada A, Suyama T. 2009. Effects of Cutting Time and Low-temperature Treatment of Rooted Cuttings on Stem Elongation and Leaf Number in Cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 78(2): 218-223.

• Wareing PF, Walston AW (eds). 1963. Internaltional series of monogrphs on pure and applied biology Pergamon Press Inc.: London.

• Warner RM, Erwin JE. 2006. Prolonged high-temperature exposure differentially reduces growth and flowering of 12 Viola x wittrockiana Gams. cvs. Scientia Horticulturae 108(3): 295-302.

• Wellensiek SJ, Hakkaart FA. 1955. Vernalization and age. K Nederl Akad Wetenschap Proc Ser C 58((1)): 16-21.

• Wiebe HJ. 1994. Effects of temperature and daylength on bolting of leek (Allium Porrum L.). Scientia Horticulturae 59(3-4): 177-185.

• Wilkie JD, Sedgley M, Olesen T. 2008. Regulation of floral initiation in horticultural trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 59(12): 3215-3228.

• Yeh DM, Atherton JG. 1997. Manipulation of flowering in cineraria .2. Juvenility. Journal of Horticultural Science 72(1): 55-66.

• Yeh DM, Atherton JG, Craigon J. 1997. Manipulation of flowering in cineraria .4. Devernalization. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 72(4): 545-551.

• Yuan M, Carlson WH, Heins RD, Cameron AC. 1998. Determining the duration of the juvenile phase of Coreopsis grandiflora (Hogg ex Sweet.), Gaillardia grandiflora (Van Houtte), Heuchera sanguinea (Engelm.) and Rudbeckia fulgida Ait.). Scientia horticulturae 72(2): 135-150.




How to Cite

Ha, T. M. (2014). A Review of Plants’ Flowering Physiology: The Control of Floral Induction by Juvenility, Temperature and Photoperiod in Annual and Ornamental Crops. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(3). Retrieved from https://ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/1267