Professional Development through Work Integrated Learning in Tourism and Hospitality â€“ alive in South Africa
Keywords:Tourism, tourism training, curriculum development, work-integrated-learning, industry skills, knowledge
Tourism is regarded as a modern-day engine for growth and is one of the largest industries globally. South Africa has earmarked tourism as a key sector with excellent potential for growth and development. With its spectacular scenery, friendly people, world-class infrastructure, South Africa is becoming one of the most desired destinations in the world. Being a labour-intensive sector, with a supply chain that links across sectors, tourism is a priority sector in the governmentâ€™s planning and policy frameworks and it is perceived to be one of the six job drivers of the New Growth Path framework. To realise this vision, the government has embarked on skills enhancement drive to complement the tourism growth strategy. Initially tourism training was conducted in Technikons, and vocationally oriented colleges. With the introduction of tourism and hospitality education in conventional universities, a lot of programmes have sprouted up. But to what extent do the current curricula address the training needs in the industry? This paper argues that tourism and hospitality training should address the immediate needs of industry by preparing students for career related occupations. On one hand most graduates from conventional universities tend to delve deeper into more abstract issues, they tend to lack immediate skills that are demanded by employers.On the other hand graduates from colleges lack the aptitude and skills to drive innovation. Whilst higher education institutions play a significant role in the development of the hospitality and tourism industry manpower, they are failing to provide industry with knowledgeable graduates who are highly skilled with positive aptitudes, attitudes and behaviours towards work. The overpowering challenge facing higher education institutions is how to overcome the perceived lack of credibility of higher level hospitality and tourism management programs by the labour market. This paper identifies Work Integrated Learning (WIL) as the vehicle to prepare graduates for employability. The paper concludes with a set of critical success factors for higher education institutions, implications to curricula development and necessary industry partnerships.
â€¢ Aggett, M. & Busby, B. (2011).Opting out of internship: Perceptions of hospitality, tourism and events Management undergraduates at a British university. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and tourism Education, 10(1): 106 â€“ 113.
â€¢ Airey, D. & Johnson, S. (1999). The content of tourism degree courses in the UK. Tourism Management, 20(2): 229-235.
â€¢ Barry, M. (2007). Vocational Education and Training in Ireland: Thematic Overview. European Centre for the development of vocational training and Training, Vol. 55(3): 319-333.
â€¢ Bringle, R., & Hatcher, J. (1995). A service-learning curriculum for faculty. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2(1): 112â€“122.
â€¢ Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
â€¢ Busby, G. & Fiedel, D. (2001). A Contemporary Review of Tourism Degrees in the United Kingdom. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 53(4): 501-521.
â€¢ Busby, G. & Klug, J. (2001). Movie-induced tourism: the challenge of measurement and other issues, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7 (4): 316-332.
â€¢ Busby, G. (2003). Tourism degree internships: a longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Education.8(1): 37-54.
â€¢ Busby, G., Brunt, P., & Baber, S. (1997). Tourism Sandwich Placements: an Appraisal. Tourism Management, 18(2): 105-110.
â€¢ Cecil, A. (2012). A Framework for Service Learning in Hospitality and Tourism Management Education, Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 12 (4): 313-331.
â€¢ Chang Te-Yi&Hsu Jui-Man (2010). Development framework for tourism and hospitality in higher vocational education in Taiwan. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 9(1): 101 â€“ 109.
CHE see Council for Higher Education.
â€¢ CHE, 2011. Work-Integrated Lea rnin g: Good Practice Guide. Pretoria, Council on Higher Education.
â€¢ Chimutingiza, F., Mwando. M. & Kazembe, C. (2011). The hospitality and tourism honours degree programme: Stakeholdersâ€™ perceptions on competencies developed. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism . 3(1): 12-22.
â€¢ Christou, E. (2002). Revisiting competencies for hospitality management. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 14(1): 25â€“32.
â€¢ Dale, C. and Robinson, N. (2001). The Theming of Tourism Education: a Three-domain approach.tourism and leisure programmes. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education,
â€¢ Eyler, J., Giles, D. E., Stenson, C., & Gray, C. (2001). At a glance: What we know about the effects of service-learning on college students, faculty, institutions, and communities, 1993â€“2000 (3rd ed.). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.
â€¢ Horng, J.-S., & Lee, Y.-C. (2006). What does It take to be a creative culinary artist? Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 5(2/3): 5-22.
â€¢ Horng, J.-S., Teng, C.-C., & Baum, T. (2009). Evaluating the quality of undergraduate hospitality,
â€¢ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 13(1): 30-34.
â€¢ Inui Y, Wheeler D. & Lankford, S. (2006). Rethinking Tourism Education: What Should Schools Teach? Journal of Hospitality Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 5(2): 25-35.
â€¢ Martin, Fleming, Ferkins, Wiersma and Coll (2010) Facilitating and integrating learning with sport studies cooperative education: Exploring the pedagogies employed by students, academics and workplace supervisors. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 9(1), 24 â€“ 38.
â€¢ Martin, J.A. Rees, M. Edwards, M. & Paku L. 2012 A range of pedagogies provide students with content knowledge and theory, linked to practical work through the placements/practicum or project. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1): 23-37.
â€¢ McMillan, H.J. & Schumacher, S. 2010. Research in Education: Evidence based inquiry. New York: Pearson.
â€¢ Morgan, M. (2004). From Production Line to Drama School: Higher Education for the Future of tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(2): 91-99.
â€¢ Purpel, D. E. (1998). Social transformation and holistic education: Limitations and possibilities. In H.
â€¢ Raybould .M. & Wilkins, H. (2005). Over qualified and under experienced: turning graduates into hospitality managers. International Journal of Contemporarily Hospitality Management, 17(3): 203 â€“ 216.
â€¢ Ring A, Dickinger A. & Worber, K. (2009). Designing the Ideal Undergraduate program in tourism: Expectations from industry and educators. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 48(1): 106 â€“ 121.
â€¢ Rotich, D., Sawe B. J. & AkgÃ¼l, K. 2012. Assessment of Quality of Hospitality Education in Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(5): 675-679
â€¢ Sattler, P. (2011). Work-Integrated Learning in Ontarioâ€™s Postsecondary Sector. Toronto, Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
â€¢ Shapiro S. and Purpel, D. E. (Eds.), Critical Issues in American Education: Transformation in a Postmodern World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
â€¢ Sheldon, P., Fesenmaier, D., & Tribe, J. (2011). The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI): Activating change in tourism education. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11(1): 2â€“23.
â€¢ Spowart, J. (2006). Hotel School Studentsâ€™ Views of their Preparation for Work-integrated Learning: An Exploratory Study. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2): 10 - 15).
â€¢ Tanaka Y. & Carlson, K. 2012. An international comparison of the effect of work-integrated learning on academic performance: A statistical evaluation of WIL in Japan and Hong Kong Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2): 77-88.
â€¢ Tribe, J. (2001). Research Paradigms and the Tourism Curriculum. Journal of Travel Research. 39, 442-448.
â€¢ Va z, G. (2012). Integrating Vocational Education with Academic Education in Commonwealth Open Schools. Canada, Commonwealth of Learning.
â€¢ Wells, C., & Grabert, C. (2004). Service-learning and mentoring: Effective pedagogical strategies. College Student Journal, 38(4): 573â€“578.
â€¢ Wheeler, D. & Lankford, S. (2006). Rethinking Tourism Education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education5, (2):25-35.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.