The Language Learning Achievement and School Life of Southeastern Asian Female Immigrants’ Children in Taiwan


  • Yi-Horng Lai Oriental Institute of Technology


Immigrants’ children, Language learning achievement, School life, Growth mixture model


Immigrants’ children are disadvantaged due to language, cultural and social interactional conflicts between home and school. Immigrant parents who speak a foreign language often have less cultural capital to share with their children, weaker relationships with their children's teachers and less understanding of school norms. Immigrants’ children were weaker in understanding of teachers' and classmates' expectations, which can limit their learning opportunities and yield less learning, compared to native children. This study would focus on 872 elementary school students, and it included 275 male elementary school students and 271 female elementary school students. Growth mixture model was applied with 3-year data in this study. With the result of the study, the elementary school students could be divided to 3groups: low-level language learning achievement group, middle-level language learning achievement group, and high-level language learning achievement group. Group 1 students were weak in language learning, but the quality of peer relationship and environmental perception were growth. The language learning achievement of Group 2 students were better than Group 1 students, but weak than Group 3 students. Their quality of teacher-student relationship was decrease. Group 3 students did a good job in language learning, but the quality of teacher-student relationship, peer relationship, and environmental perception were decrease. For immigrants’ children, most of them were Group 2 students. For residents’ children, most of them were Group 3 students.


Akar, H. “Challenges for schools in communities with internal migration flows: evidence from Turkeyâ€, International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 263-276, 2010.

Chiang, C.C. “New immigrant women parents to participate in their children to school life adaptation: Shuguang Elementary School in Pingtung Countyâ€, Master’s Thesis, Graduate Institute of Educational Administration, National Pingtung University of Education, Taiwan, 2005.

Chin, J.M.C. & Yu, S.C. “School Adjustment Among Children of Immigrant Mothers in Taiwanâ€, Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1141-1152, 2008.

Chiu, M.M. & Chow, B.W.Y. “Culture, motivation, and reading achievement: High school students in 41 countriesâ€, Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 579-592, 2010.

Chen, C.L. “A Case Study of The SCHOOL adjustment of 4 Migrant Brides' Childrenâ€, Master’s Thesis, Department of counseling and psychology, Hua-Shih College of Education, Taiwan, 2005.

Chen, P.J. “A Study of the Relationship between Family Environment and School Life Adjustment for Foreign Brides' Children-Study of Southeast Asia Brides in Taiwanâ€, Master’s Thesis, Department of infant and child care, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taiwan, 2004.

Chen, Y.S. & Cheng, C.H. “Assessing mathematics learning achievement using hybrid rough set classifiers and multiple regression analysisâ€, Applied Soft Computing, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1183-1192, 2013.

Cortina, J.M. “What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applicationsâ€, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 78, pp. 98-104, 1993.

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. “Modeling the processes if development via latent growth curve methodologyâ€, Structural Equation Model, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 187-213, 1995.

Ho, M.Y. “The Research on Academic Achievement of Foreign Spouses' Children-the Analysis of Cultural Capital Perspectivesâ€, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, 2006.

Hsiao, T.C. “A study of Social Status and Academic Achievement of 1st-and-2nd-Grade Children of Female Immigrant Spouses in Taichung Countyâ€, Master’s Thesis, Department and Graduate Institute of Early Childhood Development and Education, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan, 2005.

Huang, C.F. & Liu, C.J. “Exploring the Influences of Elementary School Students’ Learning Motivation on Web-Based Collaborative Learningâ€, US-China Education Review, vol. 6, pp. 613-618, 2012.

Huang, Y.F. “Parent-teacher interactions for the south Asian female immigrants and the effects on their children's school lifeâ€, Master’s Thesis, Department of psychology and counseling, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan, 2005.

Ko, S.H. “A Comparative Study on Academic Achievements for Immigrant Brides Children at an Elementary School in Keelungâ€, Master’s Thesis, Department of Early Childhood and Family Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan, 2004.

Lai, E. & Xue, Y. “On the Influence of Online Education on Teacher-Student Relationshipâ€, Soft Computing in Information Communication Technology, vol. 2, pp. 49-55, 2012.

Ministry of Education, “The Survey of foreign spouses’ children in elementary schoolâ€, The Statistics of Education. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from, 2005.

Mohammadpour, E. “A three-level multilevel analysis of Singaporean eighth-graders science achievementâ€, Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 26, pp. 212-220, 2013.

Othman, N. & Leng, K.B. “The Relationship between Self-Concept, Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Determination and Academic Achievement among Chinese Primary School Studentsâ€, International Journal of Psychological Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 90-98, 2011.

Shen, B., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J. J., Fahlmann, M. & Garn, A. “Urban high-school girls sense of relatedness and their engagement in physical educationâ€, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 231-245, 2012.

Wang, S.Y, Wen, M.L., Hsieh, Y.H., Huang, N.Y., Huang, J.L., Chen, Y.J., Chen, H.J., Tseng, Y.Y., & Liao, Y.C. “The Study for Learning Performance of Immigrant Children in Taiwanâ€, Journal of Educational Resources and Research, vol. 68, pp. 137-170, 2006.

Wu, Y.Y. “Parental Involvement of Southeastern Asian Female Immigrants and Its Relationship to Their Children's School Life Adjustmentsâ€, Survey Research Data Archive. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from, 2010.

Wu, Y.Y., Tsai, C.C, & Siao, R.F. “Parental Involvement of Southeastern Asian Female Immigrants and Its Relationship to Their Children's School Life Adjustmentsâ€, Journal of Research in Education Sciences, vol. 55, no. 4, pp.157-186, 2010.

Wu, Y.Y., Tsai, C.C, & Siao, R.F. “Southeast Asian Immigrant Mothers' Involvement in their Children's Learningâ€, Educational Review, vol. 37, pp.1-35, 2011.

Yang, C.K., Tsai, P.Y., & Ho, T.F. “A Study of Course Assessment on C++ Programmingâ€, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 383-392, 2013.




How to Cite

Lai, Y.-H. (2014). The Language Learning Achievement and School Life of Southeastern Asian Female Immigrants’ Children in Taiwan. Asian Journal of Education and E-Learning, 2(2). Retrieved from