Compositional Change in Fish Assemblage Structure in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq
Keywords:Fish assemblage, ecological factors, biodiversity indices, Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq
Shatt Al-Arab River suffered from deterioration in water quality due to seawater intrusion as a result of the decline in rate of discharge of freshwater during the recent years. Therefore, the fish assemblage structure in the river was assessed using taxonomic and functional metrics of assemblage structure during the period from November 2015 to October 2016. Fish were sampled monthly by different fishing gears including gill nets, cast net and electro-fishing from three sites on the river.Â The fish assemblage consisted of 111 fish species representing 50 families belong to Osteichthyes except three relate to Chondrichthyes. The fish fauna comprised 15 native, 13 exotic and 83 marine species. The most abundant species were Carassius auratus (13.24%), Oreochromis aureusÂ (12.58%) and PlanilizaÂ klunzingeri (10.56%). The dominance value (D3) was 63.4%. The resident species formed 36.0%, occasional species 55.9% and seasonal species 8.1% of the total number of fish species. Fish diversity index ranged from 1.62 to 2.22, richness from 2.23 to 4.63 and evenness from 0.40 to 0.64. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that water temperature and salinity correlated positively with the number of species. The results revealed that the fish assemblage in the river was clearly shifted in the number of species, the percents of exotic and marine species and the dominancy species compared with the previous status.
Saad MAH. "Seasonal variations of some physico-chemical conditions of Shatt Al-Arab estuary, Iraq', Estuarine and Coastal of Marine Science, vol. 6, pp. 503-513, 1978.
Reynolds M. "Physical oceanography of the Gulf, Strait of Homurz, and the Gulf of Oman from the Ml Mitchell Expedition", Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 27, pp. 35-59, 1993.
Sharaf El-Din SH. "Temperature, salinity and circulation in Saudi coastal waters (Arabian Gulf) during May 1985", Indian J. Mar. Sci. vol. 17, pp. 1-8, 1988.
Al-Mahdi AA. "Salt-Wedge procession in Shatt Al-Arab River estuary", Marina Mesopotamlca, vol 11, pp. 107-115, 1996.
Al-Hassan LAJ, Hussain NA. "Hydrological parameters influencing the penetration of Arabian Gulf fishes in to Shatt Al-Arab River river Iraq" Cybium, vol 9, pp. 7-16, 1985.
Hussain NA, Ali TS, Saud KD. "Seasonal fluctuations and composition of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River River at Basrah, Iraq", J. Biol. Sci. Res., vol 20, pp. 139-150, 1989.
Hussain NA, Younis KH, Yousif UH. "The influence of low salinity temperature and domestic sewage of the distribution of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq" Marina Mespotamica, vol 10, pp. 257-274, 1995.
Hussain NA, Younis KH, Yousif UH. "Seasonal fluctuations of fish assemblage of intertidal mudflats of the Shatt Al-Arab River estuary, Iraq, northwestern Arabian Gulf", Marina Mesopotamica, vol 14, pp. 33-53, 1999.
Partow H. "The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem. Early Warning and Assessment", Technical Report, UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3 Rev. 1, 2001.
Plaziat JC, Younis WR, "The Modern Environments of Molluscs in Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq: A Guide to Paleogeographical Reconstructions of Quaternary Fluvial, Palustrine and Marine Deposits". Carnets de GÃ©ologie, vol 1, pp. 1â€“18, 2005.
Niqash. http://www.niqash.org/articales/print.php?id=2517&lang=en, 2009.
Hameed AH., Aljorany YS. "Investigation on nutrient behavior along Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq", J. Appl. Sci. Res., vol 7, pp. 1340-1345, 2011.
Al-Maliky JHA. "Analysis of water quality and impact of the salt wedge from Arabian Gulf on the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq", MSc thesis. The University of Queenland, Australia. 81p, 2012.
Abdullah AD, Karim UFA, Masih I, Popescu I, Zaag PV. "Anthropogenic and tidal influences on salinity levels of the Shatt al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq", International Journal of River Basin Management, vol 14, pp. 357-366, 2016.
Al-Tawash B, Al-Lafta HS, Merkel B. "Preliminary Assessment of Shatt Al-Arab Riverine Environment, Basra Governorate, Southern Iraq", Journal of Natural Science Research, vol 3, pp. 120-136, 2013.
Hameed HA, Ali MH, Aljorany YS, Hassan WF, Al-Hello AAZ. "Assessing changes in seawater intrusion and water quality of the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq". Ann. Limnol. Int. J. Lim., vol 49, pp. 199â€“206, 2013.
Yaseen BR, Al-Asaady KA, Kazem AA, Chaichan MT. "Environmental Impacts of Salt Tide in Shatt Al-Arab-Basra/Iraq", Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, vol 10, pp. 35-43, 2016.
Abdullah AD, Gisen JIA, Zaag PV, Savenije HHG, Karim UFA, Masih I, Popescu I. "Predicting the salt water intrusion in the Shatt al Arab 1 estuary using an analytical approach", Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-141, 2016.
Eassa AM, Jassim WF, Al-Maliki JH, Al-Saad TR, Mehson NK. "Assessment of eutrophication and organic pollution status of Shatt Al- Arab River by using diatom indices", Mesopotamia Environmental Journal, vol 1(3), pp.44-56, 2015.
Brandimarte L, Popescu I, Neamah NK. "Analysis of fresh-saline water interface at the Shatt Al-Arab estuary", International Journal of River Basin Management, vol 13, pp. 17-25, 2015.
Moyel MS, Hussain NA. "Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq", Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, vol 3, pp. 459-465, 2015.
Mohamed ARM, Resen AK, Tahe MM. "Longitudinal patterns of fish community structure in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq", Basrah J. Sci. vol 30, pp. 65-86, 2012.
Mohamed ARM, Hussein SA, Lazem LF. "Spatiotemporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq", Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, vol 3(1), pp. 27-34, 2015.
Al-Lami ORT. "Some Marine Properties for Arabian Gulf on North Part's Hydrology of Shatt Al Arab Riverbed". MSc thesis. Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq, 2009.
Al-Ramadhan BM, Pastour M. "Tidal characteristics of Shatt Al-Arab River". Marina Mesopotamica, vol 2(1), pp. 15-28, 1987.
Carpenter KE, Krupp F, Jones DA, Zajonz U. "FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Living marine resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates", FAO, Rome. 293 p., 1997.
Coad WB. "Freshwater Fishes of Iraq", www.briancoad.com, 2017.
Eschmeyer WN. "Catalog of Fishes: species by family/subfamily", (http:// researcharchive. calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.as). Online version, updated 28 April 2017.
Froese R, Pauly D. "In FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication", www.fishbase.org, version (10/2017).
Odum WA. "Insidious alternation of the estuarine environment", Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., vol 99, pp. 836-847, 1970.
Shanon CE, Weaver W. "The mathematical theory of communication", Univ. Illionis. Press Urbane, 1949.
Pielou EC. "Mathematical ecology", John Wiely, New York, 1977.
Margalef R. "Perspectives in ecology", University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Tyler AV. "Periodic and resident components in communities of Atlantic fishes", J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., vol 28(7), pp. 935-946, 1971.
Kwak TJ, Peterson JT. "Community indices, parameters, and comparisons. Analysis and interpretation of freshwater fisheries data", American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 677-763, 2007.
Ter Braak CJF. "Canonical Correspondence Analysis: A new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis", Ecology vol 67(5), pp. 1167-1179, 1986.
Al-Hassan LAJ, Hussain NA, Soud KD. "A preliminary annotated checklist of the fishes of Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq", Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. J., vol 36, pp. 283-288, 1989.
Hussain NA, Younis KH, Yousif UH. "The composition of small fish assemblage in the river Satt Al-Arab near Basrah, Iraq", Acta Hydrobiology, vol 39, pp. 29-37, 1997.
Richardson CJ, Reiss P, Hussain NA, Alwash AJ, Pool DJ. "The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq", Science, vol 307, pp. 1307-1311, 2005.
Mohamed ARM, Hussein SA, Lazem LF. "Fish assemblage of Garmat Ali River, north of Basrah, Iraq", Basrah J. Agric. Sci., vol 26(1), pp.150-166, 2013.
Mohamed ARM, Younis KH, Hameed EK. "Status of fish assemblage structure in the Garmat Ali River, Iraq", Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture & Health Sciences, vol 10(2), pp. 17-22, 2017.
Hughes RM, Thomas R, Whittier TR. "Biological Condition Index Development for the Lower Truckee River and Eastern Sierra Nevada Rivers: Fish Assemblage", Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. 80p., 2005.
Smith CD, Fisher JR, Quist M C. "Historical changes in Nebraskaâ€™s lotic fish assemblages: Implications of anthropogenic alterations", Am. Midl. Nat., vol 172, pp. 160-184, 2014.
Alaidani MAT. "The change in the geographic and agricultural properties impacts in the province of Basra", MSc. Thesis, University of Basra, College of Education Sciences, 2014.
Al-Shujairi SOH. "Develop and apply water quality index to evaluate water quality of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq", International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, vol 3(4), pp. 2119-2126, 2013.
Bozzetti M, Schulz UH. "An index of biotic integrity based on fish assemblages for subtropical streams in southern Brazil", Hydrobiologia, vol 529, pop. 133-144, 2004.
Costa P, Schulz U. "The fish community as an indicator of biotic integrity of the streams in the Sinos River basin, Brazil", Braz. J. Biol., vol 70, pp. 1195-1205, 2010.
Canonico GA, Arthington JK, McCrary JK, Thieme ML. The effects of introduced tilapias on native biodiversity", Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol 15, pp. 463-483, 2005.
Innal D, Erkâ€™akan F. "Effects of exotic and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Turkey", Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, vol 16, pp. 39-50, 2006.
Onorato D, Angus RA, Marion KR. "Historical changes in the ichthyofaunal assemblages of the Upper Cahaba River in Alabama associated with extensive urban development in the watershed", J. Freshwater Ecol., vol 15pp. 47-63, 2000.
Gido KB., Dodds WK, Eberle ME. "Retrospective analysis of fish community change during a half-century of landuse and streamflow changes", J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., vol 29, pp. 970-987, 2010.
Garcia AM, Raseira MB, Vieira JP, Winemiller KO, Grimm AM. "Spatiotemporal variation in shallow-water freshwater fish distribution and abundance in a large subtropical coastal lagoon", Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol 68, pp. 215-228, 2003.
Martino EJ, Able KW. "Fish assemblages across the marine to low salinity transition zone of a temperate estuary", Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol 56, pp. 969-987, 2003.
Whitfield AK, Taylor RH, Fox C, Cyrus DP. "Fishes and salinities in the St Lucia estuarine systemâ€”a review", Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, vol 16, pp. 1-20, 2006.
Xinfeng Z, Jiaquan D. "Affecting Factors of Salinity Intrusion in Pearl River Estuary and Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Pearl River Delta". In; Fukushi K, Hassan K M, Hondar R, Sumi A. (eds.). Sustainability in Food and Water: An Asian Perspective. p. 11â€“17, 2010.
Pizano RI. "Freshwater flow, saltwater intrusion, paper mill effluent, and fish assemblage structure in the lower Neches River, Texas", MSc thesis. Texas A & M University, USA, 2013.
de Melo GV, Neto SJAB, VinzÂ´on UB, de Oliveira AS, Vicente MAF, Malm O, da Silva CG. "Salinity intrusion in the Guapimirim Estuary, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil", Revista Brasileira de GeofÂ´Ä±sica, vol 32(1), pp. 1-16, 2014, 2014.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.