Food and Trophic Relationships of Four Mullet Fish (Mugilidae) in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

Abdul-Razak M Mohamed, Abdullah N. Abood

Abstract


Food composition and feeding relationships of four mullet species, Planliza abu, P. subviridis, P. klunzingeri and Osteomugil speigleri from the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq, were assessed during 2016-2017.Fish were captured by gill nets, cast net and electro-fishing. The index of relative importance (IRI%) of food item was determined by combined the frequency of occurrence and points methods. Monthly variations in feeding activity and intensity of all species were observed. All species were herbivorous and P. abu and  P. klunzingeri were considered non-specialized feeders, while P. subviridis and O. speigleri were low specialist feeders. P. abu fed mainly on diatoms (38.6%), high plants (21.7%), algae (15.9%), detritus (15.3%), fish eggs (6.9%) and zooplankton (1.6%).The diet of P. subviridis constituted from diatoms (42.2%), high plants (20.9%), detritus (17.7%), algae (15.9%), zooplankton (2.0%) and fish eggs (1.8%). P. klunzingeri fed mainly on diatoms (35.5%), high plants (29.3%), detritus (16.4%), algae (13.4%), fish eggs (4.1%) and zooplankton (2.4%). O. speigleri were consumed mainly diatoms (52.0%), detritus (17.8%), algae (16.6%), high plants (10.7%), zooplankton (2.5%) and fish eggs (2.4%).Similarity dendrogram among fish species based on their diet showed high significant overlaps among the mullet species. It means that these species might be in direct competition for food in the Shatt Al-Arab River.


Keywords


Mullet fish, food habit, herbivorous, Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

Full Text:

PDF

References


González-Castro M, Ghasemzadeh, J. “Morphology and morphometry based taxonomy of Mugilidae”. In: Crosetti D, Blaber S. (eds.). Biology, ecology and culture of grey mullet (Mugilidae). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. Pp. 1-21. 2015.

Eschmeyer WN, Fong JD. “ Species by family/subfamily”. (http://researcharchive. calacademy. org/research/ichthyology/catalog/ SpeciesByFamily.asp). Online Version, Updated 30 April 2018.

Sivasubramaniam K. “Pelagic resources of the Gulf and Gulf of Oman”. FAO. Publ. FI: DP/ RAB/71/278/11, Pp. 1-144, 1981.

Mohamed ARM, Abood AN, Hussein SA. “Comparative taxonomy study of four mullet species (Mugilidae) from Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf”. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., vol 29, pp. 11-20, 2016.

Mohamed ARM, Abood AN, Hussein SA. “Taxonomy Study of Planiliza (Liza) abu in Garmat Ali River, Iraq”. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, vol 19, pp. 11-20, 2018.

Ali TS, Mohamed ARM, Hussain NA. “The Status of Iraqi Marine Fisheries during 1990-1994”. Marina Mesopotamica, vol. 13, pp. 129-147, 1998.

Mohamed ARM. “Assessment and management of Iraqi marine artisanal fisheries, northwest of the Arabian Gulf”. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Vol. 11, pp. 85-92, 2018.

Priyadharsini S, Manoharan J, Varadharajan D, Subramaniyan A. “Interpretation of the food and feeding habits of Dascillus trimaculatus (Ruppell, 1829) from Gulf of Manner, South East Coast of India”. Archives of applied Science Research, vol. 4, pp. 1758-1762, 2012.

Sajeevan MK, Kurup BM. “Evaluation of feeding indices of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus. 1766) from northwest coast of India”. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India, vol. 55, pp. 16-21, 2013.

Al-Nasiri SK, Saker AL, Shamsul-Hoda SMS. “Feeding ecology of mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel) in Basrah, Iraq”. Bull Basrah Nat. Hist. Mus., vol. 4, pp. 27-40, 1977.

Barak NA.” Study of food habits of three Iraqi fish species in Al-Saklawia drainage”. MSc. Thesis, College of Science, University of Baghdad. 147p, 1978.

Ahmad TA, Hussian NA. “Observation on the food of young Liza abu (Heckel ) from Salihyia River, Basrah, Iraq”. Journal of Marine Science,vol. 1, pp. 79-88, 1982.

Naama AK. “Some biological aspects of two freshwater fish, Liza abu and Mugil dussummieri in Hammar marsh, north of Basrah, Iraq”. MSc. Thesis, College of Science, University of Basrah, 161p, 1982.

Wahab NK. “Ecology and biology of three species of mugilid fishes in Shatt Al-Basrah Canal”. Msc. Thesis, University of Basrah, College of Agriculture, 155 pp, 1986.

Wahab NK. “Food habits and food relationship for some freshwater fish species in Al-Tharthar arm-Tigris-Sammara”, Iraq. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., vol. 26, pp. 182-197, 2013.

Al-Asadiy YD, Mhaisen FT, Dauod HAM. “Food and feeding habits of the mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel) in a fish farm at Babylon province, mid Iraq”. IBN Al-Haitham J. for Pure & Appl. Sci., vol. 14, pp. 1-8, 2001.

Al-Shawi SAS, Wahab NK. “Some biological aspects of Liza abu (Heckel) fish in Tuz-Chi tributary, north Iraq”. Samara Journal, Vol. 15, pp. 214-228, 2008.

Mohamed ARM, Hussain NA, Al-Noor SS, Coad BW, Mutlak FM, Al-Sudani IM, Mojer AM, Toman AJ. “Species composition, ecological indices and trophic pyramid of fish assemblage of the restored Al-Hawizeh Marsh, Southern Iraq”. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, vol. 8, pp. 375-384, 2008.

Mohamed ARM, Hussain NA, Al-Noor SS, Mutlak FM. “Ecological and biological aspects of fish assemblage in the Chybaish marsh, Southern Iraq”. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, vol. 12, pp. 65-74, 2012.

Al-Shamma’a AA, Al-Azawi BM, Shawardi AA. “Food composition of Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) in Tigris River”. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., vol. 25, pp. 254-264, 2012.

Mohamed ARM, Hussain NA. “Trophic strains and diet shift of the fish assemblages in the recently restored Al-Hammar marsh, southern Iraq”. Journal of University of Duhok, vol. 15, pp. 115-127, 2012.

Jabir MK, Al-Hisnawi FM. “The food and feeding habits of the greenback grey mullet Liza subviridis (Valenciennes), from Khor Al-Zubair, northwest Arabian Gulf”. Marina Mesopotamica, vol. 9, pp. 357-368, 1994.

Mohamed ARM, Hussein S A, Saleh SA. “The biology of green back grey mullet Liza subviridis in the northwest Arabian Gulf”. Marina Mesopotamica, vol. 13, pp. 375-385, 1998.

Mohamed ARM, Hussain NA, Al-Noor SS, Coad BW, Mutlak FM. “Status of diadromous fish species in the restored East Hammar Marsh in Southern Iraq”. Amer. Fish. Soc., vol. 69, pp. 577-588, 2009.

Al-Dubakel AY. “Analysis of Natural Food Composition of Fishes in Shatt Al-Arab River, Southern Iraq”. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 89-96, 2016.

Younis KH, Hussain NA, Yousif UH. “Food and diet overlap of small fish assemblage in the upper reaches of Shatt Al-Arab river. Iraq”. Marina Mesopotamica, vol. 16, pp. 129-139, 2001.

Lazem LF. “Ecological Evaluation of the Shatt Al-Arab River by Applying Geographical Information System (GIS)”. Ph.D. Thesis, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq, 2009.

Taher MM. “Specialization, trophic breadth and diet overlap of thirteen small marine fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal, Southern Iraq”. Marsh Bulletin, vol. 5, pp. 118-131, 2010.

Nasir NA, Farnar KW. “Feeding ecology of zero group fish community from Shatt al-Arab River in Basrah, Iraq”. Journal of Arab Gulf Journal for Scientific Research, vol. 32, pp.1-9, 2014.

Abdullah AJ. “Fish biodiversity and some biological characteristics in the northern part of Shatt Al-Arab River and some of its reaches”. Ph.D. Thesis, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq, 2015.

Mohamed ARM, Hussein SA, Mutlak FM. “The feeding relationships of six fish species in East Hammar marsh, Iraq”. Thi-Qar Univ. J. Agric. Res., vol. 4, pp. 460-477, 2015.

Taher MM, Al-Dubakel AY, Al-Lamy JH. “Trophic breadth and dietary overlap for ten fish species caught from Shatt Al-Arab River, Fao, southern Iraq”. Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology, vol. 8, pp.100-109, 2016.

Al-Tawash B, Al-Lafta HS, Merkel B. "Preliminary Assessment of Shatt Al-Arab Riverine Environment, Basra Governorate, Southern Iraq", Journal of Natural Science Research, vol 3, pp. 120-136, 2013.

Brandimarte L, Popescu I, Neamah NK. "Analysis of fresh-saline water interface at the Shatt Al-Arab estuary", International Journal of River Basin Management, vol 13, pp. 17-25, 2015.

Yaseen BR, Al-Asaady KA, Kazem AA, Chaichan MT. "Environmental Impacts of Salt Tide in Shatt Al-Arab-Basra/Iraq", Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, vol 10, pp. 35-43, 2016.

Hynes HBN. “The food of fresh water sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and (Pygosteus pungitius) with a review of methods used in studies of food of fishes”. Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 19, pp. 36-58, 1950.

Edmondson WT. “Fresh water biology”. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, 1248pp, 1959.

Hadi RAM, Al-Saboonchi AA, Haroon AKY. Diatoms of Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. Nova Hedwigia, vol. 39, pp. 513-557, 1984.

Wehr JD, Sheath RG. Freshwater algae of North America, ecology classification. San Diego Academic Press, 918 pp, 2003.

Hyslop EJ. “Stomach contents analysis -a review of method and their application”. Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 17, pp. 413-422, 1980.

Stergion KI. “Feeding hapites of the lessepsian migrant Siganus luridus‎ in the Eastern Mediternian, its new environment”. Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 33pp. 531-543, 1988.

Dipper FA, Bredges CR, Menz, A. “Age, Growth and feeding in the ballon wrasse Labrus bergylta Ascanius 1767”. Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 11, pp.105- 120, 1977.

Gordan JD. “The fish population in the store water of west coast Satland. The food and feeding of whiting Merlanguis merlangiu”. Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 11, pp. 512-5291977.

Sarkar UK, Deepak PK. “The diet of clown knife fish Chitala chitala (Hamilton–Buchanan) an endangered notopterid from different wild population (India)”. Electronic Journal of Ichthyology, vol .1, pp. 11-20, 2009.

Maia A, Queiroz J, Correia P, Correia H. “Food habits of the short fin mako, Isurusoxyrinchus, off the southwest coast of Portugal”. Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 77, pp. 157-167, 2006.

Levins R. “Evolution in changing environments”. Princeton Uni. Press, New Jersey, USA, 120 p, 1968.

Krebs CJ. “Ecological methodology”. Harper Collins, NewYork. 654pp, 1989.

Blackith RE, Reyment RA. “Clustering methods”. In: multivariate morphometris. Academic Press, pp. 290-319, 1971.

Okgerman H, Yardımci CH, Dorak Z, Yilmaz N. “Feeding ecology of vimba (Vimba vimba L., 1758) in terms of size groups and seasons in Lake Sapanca, northwestern Anatolia”. Turkish Journal of Zoology, vol. 37, pp. 287-297, 2013.

Al-Ani SMH, Waha NK. “Food habits of four fish species in Eastern Drainage, Balad, Iraq”. Journal of Tikrit University for Agriculture Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 74-84, 2012.

Hussain NA, Saoud HA, Al-Shami EJ. “Specialization, competition and diet overlap of fish assemblages in the recently restored southern Iraqi marshes”. Marsh Bulletin, vol. 4, pp. 21-35, 2009.

Abood AN. “Taxonomical study on Mugilid species in Iraqi marine waters and the Garmet Ali River”. MSc. Thesis, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq, 2010.

Coad WB. "Freshwater Fishes of Iraq", Pensoft Publishers, Moscow, 2017.

Sephen JM, Blaber FLS. “The food and feeding ecology of Mugilidae in the St. Lucia lake system”. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 8, pp. 267–277, 1976.

Fatema K, Wan Maznah Wan Omar WM, Isa M. M. “Identification of Food and Feeding Habits of Mullet Fish, Liza Subviridis (Valenciennes, 1836), Valamugil Buchanani (Bleeker, 1853) from Merbok Estuary, Kedah, Malaysia”. Journal of Life Sciences and Technologies, vol. 1, pp. 47-50, 2013.

Bagenal T. “Methods for the assessment of fish production in fresh waters”. 3rd . ed. Blackwell Sci. Publ. Oxford, 365p, 1978.

Johnson JA, Arunachalam M. “Feeding habit and food partitioning in a stream fish community of Western Ghats, India. Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 93, pp. 51-60, 2012.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v7i1.5660

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.