The Influence Sugarcane Bagasse Ash and Metakaolin on Mechanical Properties Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste


  • Adhitya Satriawan Raharjo Civil Infrastructure Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
  • Ilham Kurniawan
  • Gifary Maulan W.
  • Yosi Noviari W.
  • Sasmita Purwa H.
  • Machsus Fawzi
  • Ridho Bayuaji


Geopolymer, Fly ash, Metakaolin, Sugarcane bagasse ash


This paper present an optimization of sugarcane bagasse ash and metakaolin on fly ash geopolymer paste with sea water treatment. Mechanical properties were assessed by compressive strenght test (SNI 03-1974-2011), UPV test (ASTM C597 – 16), and  porosity test (ASTM C642-90). Na2SiO3 (Sodium Silicate) and NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) with concentration of 12 Molar were used as alkali activators with ratio activator of 2,5. Percentage of fly ash and alkali used is 70% and 30%. Compressive strength test was conducted on binder 5cm x 5cm x 5cm with the age of 7, 14, 28 days, while UPV and Porosity test was performed in 28 days. Based on the compressive strength of 7-day-old concrete paste. It was found that the compressive strength of concrete paste used as a control was 21.3 MPa, V1 was 24.7 MPa, and V5 was 22.1 MPa. While at the age of concrete pasta 28 days. It was found that the compressive strength of the control was 49.6 MPa, V1 was 34.1 MPa, and V5 was 39.3 MPa. So it is assumed that those with the greatest compressive strength and the most stable are the controls (100% FA), V1(80% FA : 20% SGBA) and V5 (80% FA : 20% Metakaolin).


Aleem, Abdul M.I, P.D Aumairaj, “Geopolymer Concrete-A Reviewâ€, International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies, vol. 1, pp. 118-122, 2012

S. Zacarias, Philip, “Alternative Cements For Durable Concrete Inoffshore Environmentsâ€, presented at the Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition in Ravenna, Italy, 2007

Olivia, Monita, Alfian Kamaldi, Iskandar R. Sitompul, Ismed Diyanto, Edy Saputra, “Properties of Geopolymer Concrete from Local Fly Ash (FA) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA)â€, Materials Science Forum, vol. 803, pp. 110-114. 2015

Davidovits, Joseph, “Geopolymer Chemistry and Aplication 3rd editionâ€, France : Institut Geopolymere, 2011

Sumajouw, Marthin D.J, Servie O. Dapas. Elemen Struktur Beton Bertulang Geopolymer. Yogayakarta : Penerbit Andi, 2013.

Zhang, Zuhua, Xiao Yao, Huajun Zhu, “Potential application of geopolymers as protection coatings for marine concrete II. Microstructure and anticorrosion mechanismâ€, Applied Clay Science, vol. 49, pp.7–12, 2010.

Abdullah, M. M. A. , H. Kamarudin, M. Bnhussain, I. Khairul Nizar, A.R. Rafiza, Y. Zarina, “The Relationship of NaOH Molarity, Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio, Fly Ash/Alkaline Activator Ratio, and Curing Temperature to the Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymerâ€, Vol. 328-330, pp. 1475-1482, 2011.

Ilham Kurniawan, Darda Abdurahman F., Ahmad Fajaruddin AF, Yani Handayani and Ridho Bayu Aji, “Efek Kombinasi Dari Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash Dan Fly Ash Terhadap Kuat Tekan Beton Geopolymerâ€, in Seminar Nasional Civil days Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, 2015.

S. SNI, SNI 03-6825-2002, Metode pengujian kekuatan mortar semen untuk pekerjaan sipil, 2002.

ASTM-C597-09, “Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concreteâ€, ed. West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2009.

Gum Sung Ryu, Young Bok Lee, Kyung Taek Koh, Young Soo Chung, “The mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with alkaline activators†,Vol. 47, pp. 409-418, 2013.

Bahurudeen, A, Manu Santhanam, “Influence of different processing methods on the pozzolanic performance of sugarcane bagasse ashâ€, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 56, pp. 32–45, 2015.

Almeida, Fernando C.R, Almir Sales, Juliana P. Moretti, Paulo C.D. Mendes, “Sugarcane bagasse ash sand (SBAS): Brazilian agroindustrial by-product for use in mortarâ€, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 82, pp. 31–38, 2015.

B.B. Kenne Diffo, A. Elimbi, M. Cyr, J. Dika Manga, H. Tchakoute Kouamo, “Effect of the rate of calcination of kaolin on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymersâ€, Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, vol. 3, pp. 130-138, 2015.

Jan Deja, Alicja Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Eugeniusz Mokrzycki, “CO2 emissions from Polish cement industryâ€, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 4, pp. 583-588, 2010.

Jo, Minju, Linoshka Soto, Marleisa Arocho,Juliana St John, Sangchul Hwang, “Optimum mix design of fly ash geopolymer paste and its use in pervious concrete for removal of fecal coliforms and phosphorus in waterâ€, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 93, pp. 1097-1104, 2015.

ASTM-C642-13, “Standart Test Method for Specific Grafity, Absorption and Voids in Hardened Concrete†ed. West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2013.

Ubolluk Rattanasak, Kanokwan Pankhet, Prinya Chindaprasirt, “Effect of chemical admixtures on properties of high-calcium fly ash geopolymerâ€, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 18, pp. 364, 2011.

M. Srinivasula Reddy, P. Dinakar, B. Hanumantha Rao, “A review of the influence of source material’s oxide composition on the compressive strength of geopolymer concreteâ€, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 234, pp. 12-23, 2016.

K. Turner, Louise , Frank G. Collins, “Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions: A comparison between geopolymer and OPC cement concreteâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 43, pp. 125-130, 2013.

R. San Nicolas, M. Cyr, G. Escadeillas, “Performance-based approach to durability of concrete containing flash-calcined metakaolin as cement replacementâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 55, pp. 313–322, 2014.

B. B Sabir, S. Wild, J. Bai, “Metakaolin and Calcined Clay as Pozzolans for concrete : a Reviewâ€, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 23, pp. 441-454, 2001.

Rodrigo Fernandez, Fernando Martirena, Karen L. Scrivener, “ The origin of the pozzolanic activity of calcined clay minerals: A comparison between kaolinite, illite and montmorilloniteâ€, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 41, pp. 113-122, 2011.

Gokhan G, orhan , Rıdvan Aslaner, Osman Sinik, “The effect of curing on the properties of metakaolin and fly ash-based geopolymer pasteâ€, Composites Part B, vol. 97, pp. 329-335, 2016.

Hongling Wang, Haihong Li, Fengyuan Yan, “Synthesis and mechanical properties of metakaolinite-based geopolymerâ€, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 268, pp. 1-6, 2005.

Riahi S, Nazari A, Zaarei D, Khalaj G, Bohlooli H, Kaykha MM, “Compressive strength of ash-based geopolymers at early ages designed by Taguchi methodâ€, Material & Design, vol.37, pp. 443-449, 2012.

ASTM C 618’ “Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concreteâ€, ed. West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2000.

Rovnaník P., “Effect of curing temperature on the development of hard structure of metakaolin-based geopolymerâ€,Construction and Building Material, vol. 24(7), pp. 1176-1183, 2010.

Batra VS, Urbonaite S, Svensson G., “Characterization of unburned carbon in bagasse fly ashâ€, Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 2972–2976, 2008.

Cordeiro GC, Toledo Filho RD, Tavarse LM, Fairbairn EM, “Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concreteâ€, Cement & Concrete Research, vol. 39, pp. 110–115, 2009.

Ganesan K, Rajagopal K, Thangavel M., “Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious materialâ€, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 515–24, 2007.




How to Cite

Raharjo, A. S., Kurniawan, I., W., G. M., W., Y. N., H., S. P., Fawzi, M., & Bayuaji, R. (2017). The Influence Sugarcane Bagasse Ash and Metakaolin on Mechanical Properties Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(4). Retrieved from