X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Geochemical Investigation of Delta Steel Company (DSC), Ovwian–Aladja, western Niger Delta, Nigeria, Steelmaking Slag for use as Iron making Blastfurnace Feed and Fertilizer


  • Napoleon A. Wessey Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island




Steelmaking slag, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, geochemistry, blast furnace feed, fertilizer


This work investigated the bulk geochemistry of fifteen (15) samples of Delta Steel Company (DSC) dump slag produced by the direct reduction steelmaking process, using the X–ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) method and glass discs prepared from each of the fifteen test slag samples. The results indicate the presence of major amounts of CaO(36.62%), MgO(9.77%), Fe2O3(27.32%), SiO2(19.86%), Al2O3(5.43%), low amounts of MnO(1.46%), TiO2(0.42%), Cr2O3(0.17%), P2O5 (0.53), and minor amounts of SO3(0.04). The geochemical composition of the slag indicates suitable use as iron making blastfurnace feed and as fertilizer. The low amount of MnO in the slag is advantageous as it can reduce the disadvantage of probably causing refractory lining destruction in the presence of a notable amount of K20. The use of this slag would contribute to the conservation of natural steelmaking resources, improved crop yeild and reduction in CO2 emission in the company environment. 


• Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2011, Article ID 463638, 13pp., 2011.

• Atwell, J. S. F: “Some properties of ground granulated slag and cementâ€, In Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineering Vol. 57 part 2 June, pp. 233-250, 1974.

• Barton, W.R.: 1975. Slag Industrial Minerals and Rocks, Fourth Edition, Lefond S.J., Editor, AIME, New York, 1975.

• Blunk, G, Geiseler, J., Use of steelmaking slags, represented by selected examples, Stahl and Eisen, Vol. 100, N0 3 Feb. 11, pp. 118-123, 1980.

• Branca, T. A., Colla, V., Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna- PERCRO – TeCIP Institute, Italy, 2012.

• Das, B. Prakash, S. Reddy, P. S. R., Misra, V. N., 2007. An overview of utilization of slag and sludge from steel industries, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 40–57, 2007.

• Dippenaar, R.,†Industrial uses of slag – The use and re-use of iron and steelmaking slagsâ€, In proceedings of VII International Conference on Molten Slags and Salts, The South African Institute of mining and Metallurgy, 2004.

• Emery, J. J., “Slags as Industrial Mineralsâ€, In 3rd Industrial Minerals International congress pp. 127-142, 1977.

• Geiseler, J., Use of steelworks slag in Europe, Waste Management, vol. 16, no. 1–3, pp. 59–63, 1996.

• Kristmann, M., Portland cement clinker mineralogical and chemical investigation. (Part 1 and II). Cement and Concrete Research. 7, pp. 649-658, 1977.

• Kühn, M., Spiegel, H., Lopez, A,. F., Rex, M., Erdmann, R., Sustainable agriculture using blast furnace and steel slags as liming agents, European Commission, Luxembourg, INTERNATIONAL 2006.

• Medland, J., Portland cement clinkers, mineralogical and chemical investigation, University of Hull, unpublished Ph.D Thesis, 1983.

• Motz, H., Geiseler, J., Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources, Waste Management, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 285–293, 2001.

• Negim, O., Eloifi, B., Mench, M., Bes, C., Gaste, H., Montelica-Heino, M., Le Coustumer, P., Effect of basic slag addition on soil properties, growth and leaf mineral, www.intechopen.com, 2010.

• Piatak, N. M., Parsons, M. B., Seal, R. R., Characteristics and Environment aspects of iron and steelmaking slags, Applied Geochemistry, Elsevier, 2015

• Piret, J. and Lesgardeur A., “Utilization possibilities of LD slags, Abstract,†In International Conference on Slags, Scoria and Waste Products. Mons, 1975.

• Rayner-Canham, Overton, Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition, New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, pp. 534–535, 2006.

• Regourd, M., Guinier, A., “The crystal chemistry of the constituents of Portland cement clinker,†In Proceedings of VIth. International. Symposium. Chemistry of Cement., Vol. 1 (Moscow).,pp. 25-52, 1974.

• Rodriguez, M., F. A. Lopez, Pinto, M., Balcazar, N., Besga, G., 1994. Basic Linz-Donawitz slag as a liming agent for pastureland. Agronomy Journal, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 904- 909, 1994.

• Science Aid. "Blast Furnace". Retrieved,12-30,2007.

• Shen, H. Forssberg, E., Nordström, U., Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of stainless steel slags oriented to metal recovery, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 245–271,2004.

• Shi, C., “Steel slag - its production, processing, characteristics, and cementitious propertiesâ€, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 230–236, 2004.

• Scott, P.W., Critchley, S.R., Wilkinson, F.C.F., The chemistry and mineralogy of some granulated and pelletized blast furnace slags. Mineralogical Magazine, Vol,50,pp141-7, 1986.

• Tatsuhito, T., Kazuya, Y, New Applications for Iron and Steelmaking Slag.

• Thilo, E., Funk, H., 1959., Effects of small amounts of alkalis on the β-γ inversion in C2S.., Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. ,273, pp.1-2, 28-40, 1959.

• Yamaguchi, G., Takagi, S., “The analysis of Portland cement clinkerâ€, In proceedings of the Vth International Conference of Chemistry of. Cement. (Tokyo). Part 1, pp. 181-225, 1968.

• Yildirim, I. Z., Prezzi, M., 2011. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Morphological Properties of Steel Slag. 2011




How to Cite

Wessey, N. A. (2017). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Geochemical Investigation of Delta Steel Company (DSC), Ovwian–Aladja, western Niger Delta, Nigeria, Steelmaking Slag for use as Iron making Blastfurnace Feed and Fertilizer. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i2.4394