Reducing the Effects of Adverse Drug Reactions: Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses in Tamale, Ghana
Keywords:Nurses, adverse drug reactions, Pharmacovigilance, Steven Johnson Syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrosis
Detection and curtailment of probable ADR require decisive, continuous and close monitoring by knowledgeable health workers since ADRs have massive impact on both physical wellbeing and healthcare cost. This study assesses the knowledge and attitude of nurses towards ADRs
Data was collected from 125 nurses from four major hospitals in Tamale, Ghana using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed in GraphPad, Version 5.01.
The overall knowledge score was 36.5% and an attitude score of 59.4%. Knowledge however had a positive correlation with attitude (r =Â 0.15, p = 0.0984).Â Â Knowledge score on the definition of ADR was 21.9%,Â Â but the worst scores were in relation to serious forms of ADR; Steven Johnsonâ€™s Syndrome (13.3%) and Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (1.07%) with majority (> 75%) unable to list a single symptom of them.Â Male nurses exhibited a significantly higher knowledge (39.26% versus 32.2%,Â p = 0.0009) and a better attitude than their female counterparts (62.1% versus 55.1%). General nurses were significantly more knowledgeable than other categories of nurses and also have a better attitude (40.25%, p < 0.0001). A good proportion of nurses (42.4%) attributed their less encouraging attitude towards ADRs to lack of knowledge, with 51.2% suggesting in-service workshops to be the most appropriate strategy to increase their appreciation of ADRs. Nurses who had prior training had a significantly better knowledge than their untrained colleagues (47.11% versus 35.67%, p = 0.0047) and also exhibited a better attitude than those untrained (64.4% versus 59.0%, p= 0.5288).
The knowledge of nurses on ADRs was poor but they exhibited a good attitude. Knowledge had a positive correlation with attitude and therefore giving nurses more training on pharmacovigilance will greatly enhance their contribution towards detecting and reporting observed ADRs.
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