Designing Websites for People with Cognitive Disorder


  • Obinwa Ozonze
  • Idogwu Kingsley Uche Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Epe-Lagos


Cognitive Disorder, Websites, Designs, Accessibility


This article highlights current issues involved in designing websites which are usable for people with cognitive disorder. This is as a result of the growing number of the elderly and other people with cognitive problems who have been reported to find it difficult to access or use a number of websites today. This review employs a narrative approach with critical analysis of key issues and recommendations in current literatures. Overall, findings from this study suggests that people with cognitive disorder and those specialized in such conditions should be incorporated more in the design of guidelines for developing websites and also in designing websites. The outcome of this study will provide relevant stakeholders with insight on some of the issues faced in designing websites that are accessible and usable to people with cognitive disorder and recommendations for future designs.


Evans S, Minocha S (2014). E-learning and over 65s: designing for accessibility and digital inclusion. 29th Annual Int. Tech. and Persons with Disabilities Conf., March 17- 22, 2014, San Diego, CA, USA. Available at: [Accessed 30 Dec. 2014].

Taylor M, Stables R, Matata B, Lisboa P, Laws A, Almond P (2014). Website design: Technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients. Health Informatics J. 20(2):136-150.

Darejeh A, Singh D (2013). A review on user interface design principles to increase software usability for users with less computer literacy. J. Comp. Sci. [online] 9(11):1443-1450.

Li H, Rau P, Fujimura K, Gao Q, Wang L (2012). Designing Effective Web Forms for Older Web Users. Educational Gerontology, 38(4):271-281.

Bringula R (2013). Influence of faculty- and web portal design-related factors on web portal usability: A hierarchical regression analysis. Computers & Education, [online] 68: 187-198.

Chou W, Lai Y, Liu K (2013). User requirements of social media for the elderly: a case study in Taiwan. Behaviour & Info. Tech. [online] 32(9): 920-937.

Kennedy H, Evans S, Thomas S (2010). Can the Web Be Made Accessible for People with Intellectual Disabilities? The Information Society, 27(1): 29-39.

Lazar J,Jaeger PT (2011). Reducing barriers to online access for people with disabilities. Issues in Sci. and Tech. [online] 17(2): 68-82. Available at: [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

Savitch N, Freeman E, Clare L (2004). Learning from people with dementia to improve accessibility of website interfaces. In British HCI Conference. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

OudJ (2011). Improving Screencast Accessibility for People with Disabilities: Guidelines and Techniques. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 16(3): 129-144.

Kuzma J (2010). Accessibility design issues with UK e-government sites. Government Information Quarterly, [online] 27(2): 141-146. .

Ellcessor E (2010). BRIDGING DISABILITY DIVIDES. Information, Communication & Society, [online] 13(3): 289-308.

Youngblood N (2014). Revisiting Alabama state website accessibility. Government Information Quarterly, [online] 31(3): 476-487.

Yesilada Y, Brajnik G, Harper S (2011). Barriers common to mobile and disabled web users. Interacting with Computers, [online] 23(5): 525-542.

Sambhanthan A, Good A (2012). Implications for Improving Accessibility to E-Commerce Websites in Developing Countries. Int. J. Knowledge-Based Organizations, [online] 2(2): 1-20.

Burmeister OK (2010). Websites for Seniors: Cognitive Accessibility. Int. J. Emerging Technologies & Society, 8(2).

Wentz B, Lazar J, Stein M, Gbenro O, Holandez E, Ramsey A (2014). Danger, danger! Evaluating the accessibility of Web-based emergency alert sign-ups in the northeastern United States. Government Information Quarterly, [online] 31(3): 488-497.

Freeman E, Clare L, Savitch N, Royan L, Litherland R, Lindsay M (2005). Improving website accessibility for people with early-stage dementia: A preliminary investigation. Aging & Mental Health, 9(5): 442-448.

Williams P (2012a). Comparing the effectiveness of different website designs in facilitating information retrieval for people with learning disabilities. Iceri 2012 Proceedings, 123-133.

Williams P (2012b). Web site usability testing involving people with learning disabilities using only images and audio to access information. J. Res. Special Educational Needs, 13(2): 142-151.

Williams P,Hennig C (2014). Effect of web page menu orientation on retrieving information by people with learning disabilities. J. Assoc. Info. Sci. and Tech. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

Wright P (2010). Health information via the Internet. In Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), 2010 IEEE International: 321-332




How to Cite

Ozonze, O., & Uche, I. K. (2015). Designing Websites for People with Cognitive Disorder. Asian Journal of Computer and Information Systems, 3(4). Retrieved from