Microbiological Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality of State University Library


  • A. U. Uzoechi
  • T. N. Njoku Obi
  • P. C. Nnagbo
  • C. N. Ohalete
  • V. I. Anyiam


microbial air contamination, indoor environment, bacteria, mould fungi


The present study was aimed at evaluating the number of bacteria and mould fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of Imo University Library. The sampling sites were located in the rooms serving the functions typical of libraries (i.e. in the Main Reading Room, Current Periodicals Reading Room, Collections Conservation Laboratory, Old Prints Storeroom, in rooms serving other (non-library) functions (i.e. main hall, cafeteria, and toilet) as well as outside the library building. The analyses reveal that the concentrations of bacterial as well as fungal aerosols estimated with the use of the impaction method ranged between 101-103 CFU·m-3, which corresponds to the concentrations normally observed in areas of this kind. Evaluation of the hygienic condition of the studied areas was based on the criteria for microbiological cleanliness in interiors submitted by the European Commission in 1993. According to this classification, the air was considered to be heavily or moderately contaminated with bacteria, while the air contamination with mould fungi was described as low or moderate. The air in the Old Prints Storeroom was considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol


• Allsopp D, Seal KJ, Gaylarde ChC. Introduction to biodeterioration (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press 2004.

• Björnsson E, Norback D, Janson C, Widstrom J, Palmgren U, Strom G, Boman G. Asthmatic symptoms and indoor levels of microorganisms and house dust mites. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995; 25: 423-431

• Dacarro C, Picco AM, Grisoli R, Redolfi M. Determination of aerial microbiological contaminations in scholastic sports environment. J Appl Microbiol. 2003; 95: 904-12.

• Commission of the European Communities (CEC): Indoor Air Quality and Its impact on Man. Report No. 12. Biological Particles in Indoor Environment, Luxemburg 1993.

• Cox CS, Waters CM. Bioaerosols handbook. Lewis Publishers, New York 1995.

• Dales RE, Zwanenburg H, Burnett R, Franklin CA. Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds among children. Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 123: 196-203.

• Dutkiewicz J, Górny RL. Biologiczne czynniki szkodliwe dla zdrowia klasyfikacja i kryteria oceny narażenia. Med Pr. 2002; 53: 29-39.

• Górny RL. Fungal and bacterial propagules as indoor air contaminants: characteristic, release mechanisms, detection. Sosnowiec. Instit Occup Med & Environl Health Publ. 2004.

• Górny RL, Dutkiewicz J. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in Central and Eastern European countries. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002; 9: 17-23.

• Górny RL, WlazÅ‚o A, KrysiÅ„ska Traczyk E, Strzelczyk AB, Lis DO, ÅudzeÅ„ IzbiÅ„ska B, et al. Microbial contamination of water – damaged storerooms of libraries. Proc Indoor Air. 2005; 2: 1464-1468.

• Jain AK. Survey of bioaerosol in different indoor working environments in central India. Aerobiologia. 2000; 16: 221-225.

• Karwowska E. Microbiological air contamination in farming environment. Pol J Environ Stud. 2005; 14: 445-449.

• Karbowska-Berent J, Górny RL, Strzelczyk AB, Wlazło A. Airborne and dust borne microorganisms in selected Polish libraries and archives. Build Environ. 2011; 46: 1872-1879.

• Åebkowska M. Rola mikroorganizmów w niszczeniu materiałów użytkowych. In: Problemy jakoÅ›ci powietrza wewnÄ™trznego w Polsce 2003. Wydawnictwo Instytutu Ogrzewnictwa i Wentylacji Politechniki Warszawskiej, Warsaw 2004, 141-148.

• Lipiec A. Grzyby pleśniowe – ważny antygen środowiskowy. Terapia. 1997; 3: 27-30.

• Lugauskas A, Krikštaponis A. Microscopic fungi found in libraries of Vilnius and factors affecting their development. Indoor Built Environ. 2004; 13: 169-182.

• Muszyński A, Czerwińska A, Chruślińska I. Ocena jakości powietrza wewnętrznego pod względem mikrobiologicznym w pomieszczeniach dydaktycznych Wydziału Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Warszawskiej. Warsaw 1992.

• Newson R, Strachan D, Corden J, Millington W. Fungal and other spore counts as predictors of admission for asthma in the Trent region. Occup Environ Med. 2000; 57: 786-792.

• Pascual L, Pérez-Luz S, Yáñez MA, Santamaría A, Gilbert K, Salhot M, Apraiz D, Cetalán V. Bioaerosol emission from wastewater treatment plants. Aerobiol. 2003; 19: 261-270.

• Renn P, Jankun TM, Belanger K, Bracken MB, Leaderer BP. The relation between fungal propagules in indoor air and home characteristics. Allergy. 2001; 56: 419-424.

• Ross MA, Curtis L, Scheff PA, Hryhorczyk DO, Ramakrishnan V, Wadden RA, Persky VW. Association of asthma symptoms and severity with indoor bioaerosols. Allergy. 2000; 55: 705-711.

• Siersted HC, Gravesen S. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis after exposure to the yeast Endotorula rubra. Allergy. 1993; 48: 298-299.

• Wojtatowicz M, Stempniewicz R, Żarowska B, Rymowicz W, Robak M. Mikrobiologia ogólna. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2008.

• WlazÅ‚o A, Górny RL, ZÅ‚otkowska R, Åawniczek A, ÅudzeÅ„-IzbiÅ„ska B, Harkawy AS, Anczyk E. Narażenie pracowników na wybrane szkodliwe czynniki biologiczne w bibliotekach województwa Å›lÄ…skiego (Workers’ exposure to selected biological agents in libraries of upper Silesia) Med Pr. 2008; 59: 159-170.




How to Cite

Uzoechi, A. U., Njoku Obi, T. N., Nnagbo, P. C., Ohalete, C. N., & Anyiam, V. I. (2017). Microbiological Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality of State University Library. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(3). Retrieved from https://ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/4771