Thomas Hardy and Urbanization: The Role of Determinism in <i>Tess of the D’Urbervilles</i>


  • Fazel Asadi Amjad Associate Professor of English Literature, Kharazmi University
  • Esmaeil Najar Daronkolae PhD Student in Theatre History, Literature, and Criticism, The Ohio State University


Determinism, Tess, Thomas Hardy, Industrialism, Tess of the D'Urbervilles


Thomas  Hardy  is  considered  to  be  a  determinist  mostly  because  his  protagonists  are either  controlled  by  the nature  of  things  or  by  superior  powers.  In  other  words,  independence of  the human  Will  in  Hardy's  fiction  is  hard  to  be  approved  because  man's  struggle  against  the 'Will'  just  leads  to  his  future  failures.  In  the  present  study,  the  researchers  depict  how  the  Victorian  author  applies  his  deterministic  views/techniques  in  the Tess  of  the  D'Urbervilles, and how his  portrait  of  the  characters  as  the  victims  of  heredity  and  environment  exempts  them from  controlling  their  destiny.  This  study  also  investigates  how  nature  and  characters  in  Tess challenge  with  one  another  to  manipulate  the  pre-destined  conditions.



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How to Cite

Asadi Amjad, F., & Daronkolae, E. N. (2015). Thomas Hardy and Urbanization: The Role of Determinism in <i>Tess of the D’Urbervilles</i>. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(3). Retrieved from