Historical-Sociological Background of the Relationship between China and Xinjiang Region


  • Lian Deng University of Alcala, Spain
  • Sonia Valle de Frutos University King Juan Carlos




Uyghur, Xinjiang, Minority Policy and Nationalism


China’s minority issue always is a hot topic among scholars from west and east, and Chinese rule in Xinjiang Region is one of the hottest. As Uyghur secessionist’s numerous violent clashes are defined as desperate resistance in the west and terrorist attack in China, the discrepancy is too obvious to ignore. This discrepancy not just influences the public opinion but also the international diplomatic policy and academic investigation. This paper, as a preparation for the further investigation on the China’s Xinjiang policy, examined the background of the China-Xinjiang relationship from multidimensional perspective. By reviewing historical records and comparing them with Chinese official claims and Uyghur secessionist’s claim, this article located Xinjiang region's position inside both Chinese nationalism and Uyghur independence movement. Also Chinese official minority policies are examined as they are considered as key factor for Uyghur independence movement.

Author Biographies

Lian Deng, University of Alcala, Spain

Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Philology, Communication and Documentation, University of Alcala, Madrid Spain

Sonia Valle de Frutos, University King Juan Carlos

Vice Dean of Faculty of Communication Sciences of University King Juan Carlos, Madrid Spain


• Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso Books.

• Barth, F. (1998). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Waveland Press.

• Beckwith, C. I. (1993). The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton University Press.

• Byman, D. (2002). Keeping the peace: lasting solutions to ethnic conflicts. JHU Press.

• Brophy, D. (2016). Uyghur Nation. Harvard University Press.

• Central Asian Research Centre (London, England) & St. Antony's College (University of Oxford). Soviet Affairs Study Group (1965). Central Asian review. (Vol. 13). Published by the Central Asian Research Centre in association with the Soviet Affairs Study Group, St. Antony's College, [London]

• Central Asian Research Centre (London, England) & St. Antony's College (University of Oxford). Soviet Affairs Study Group (1968). Central Asian review. (Vol. 16). Published by the Central Asian Research Centre in association with the Soviet Affairs Study Group, St. Antony's College, [London]

• Cheng, Y. (2009). An Important Achievement in the Ethnic Theory of Marxism-Leninism in China:From National Self-Determination to Regional Autonomy of Minority Nationalities. JOURNAL OF DALI UNIVERSITY, 8(1), 53-57.

程é¥. (2009). 马克æ€åˆ—å®ä¸»ä¹‰æ°‘æ—ç†è®ºä¸­å›½åŒ–çš„é‡è¦æˆæžœ:从民æ—自决到民æ—区域自治. 大ç†å¤§å­¦å­¦æŠ¥, 8(1), 53-57.

• Clarke, M. (2010). Widening the net: China's anti-terror laws and human rights in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(4), 542-558.

• Clauson, G. (1965). An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary. By Gunnar Jarring. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift, N. F. Avd. 1, Bd. 56, Nr. 4. pp. 338. C. W. K. Gleerup, Lund. 1964. kr. 50. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 97(1), 57-57. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00123640

• De Fraja, G. (2005). Reverse Discrimination and Efficiency in Education. International Economic Review, 46(3), 1009-1031. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3663502

• Ding, L. (2009). The Abolition of the Beg System in the Qing Dynasty and the Transfer of the Political Center of Xinjiang. Heilongjiang Journal of Nations, 109, 120-123.

ä¸ç«‹å†›. (2009). 清代伯克制的废除与新疆政治中心的转移. 黑龙江民æ—丛刊,109, 120-123.

• Elverskog, J. (2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press.

• Fairbank, J. K., & Twitchett, D. (Eds.). (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 11, Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press.

• Forbes, A. D. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive.

• Gladney, D. C. (1998). Ethnic identity in China: the making of a Muslim minority nationality (pp. 159-176). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

• Hade, A. (2018, June 26). Ethnic Boundaries, Mixed States and Inter-Ethnic Relations [PDF]. Peikin: PKU Sociology. http://www.shehui.pku.edu.cn/upload/editor/file/20180626/20180626194413_9867.pdf.

• Han, G. (2012). Research on the Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China. Nankai University.

韩刚. (2012). 中国民æ—ä¼˜æƒ æ”¿ç­–ç ”ç©¶. å—开大学。(Doctoral dissertation).

• Hobsbawm, E. J. (2012). Nations and nationalism since 1780: Programme, myth, reality. Cambridge university press.

• Horowitz, D. L. (2001). Ethnic groups in conflict, updated edition with a new preface. University of California Press.

• Hyer, E. (2006). China's policy towards Uighur nationalism. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26(1), 75-86.

• Ji, Y. (2003). General Zuo Zongtang and the Foundation of Xinjiang Province. Social Sciences in Nanjing (6), 44-49.

季云飞. (2003). å·¦å®—æ£ å’Œæ–°ç–†å»ºçœ. å—京社会科学(6), 44-49.

• Kamen, H. (2014). The Spanish Inquisition: a historical revision. Yale University Press.

• Kaup, K. P. (2000). Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

• Lake, D. A., & Rothchild, D. (1996). Containing fear: The origins and management of ethnic conflict. International security, 21(2), 41-75.

• Liu, A., & Chen, G. (2006). The Anxi Protectorate in the Tang Dynasty: The Governance in Kucha. History Research(1), 34-48.

刘安志, & 陈国ç¿. (2006). å”代安西都护府对龟兹的治ç†. 历å²ç ”究(1), 34-48.

• Liu, T. T., & Faure, D. (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China (Vol. 1). Hong Kong University Press.

• Liu, Xiaoming. (2018, August 21). Harmony in Xinjiang is based on three principles. Financial Times. www.ft.com/content/05a81682-a219-11e8-85da-eeb7a9ce36e4.

• Lu, W. (2014). Analysis of Population Changes in Shaanxi-Gansu Region from 1776 to 1953. Inheritance and Innovation of Historical Geography and Research on Border Security and Historical Governance in Western China. 2014 Chinese Geographical Society Historical Geography Committee (pp. 354-365).

路伟东. (2014). 1776至1953年陕甘区域人å£å˜åŠ¨åˆ†æž. 历å²åœ°ç†å­¦çš„继承与创新暨中国西部边疆安全与历代治ç†ç ”究——2014年中国地ç†å­¦ä¼šåŽ†å²åœ°ç†ä¸“ä¸šå§”å‘˜ä¼šå­¦æœ¯ç ”è®¨ä¼šè®ºæ–‡é›†.

• Ma, Rong. (2012. August). Ethnic Issues and the "Nationality Recognition" Campaign in China in the 1950s. N.W. Journal of Ethnology (3), 13-28.

马戎. (2012.08). 中国的民æ—问题与20世纪50年代的“民æ—识别â€. 西北民æ—ç ”ç©¶(3), 13-28.

• Ma, Rong. (2012. September). How to Define "Nation" and "Chinese Nation." Journal of South-Central University for Nationalities (Humanities and Social Sciences), 32(5), 1-12.

马戎. (2012.09). 如何认识“民æ—â€å’Œâ€œä¸­åŽæ°‘æ—â€â€”—回顾1939年关于“中åŽæ°‘æ—是一个â€çš„讨论. 中å—æ°‘æ—大学学报(人文社会科学版), 32(5), 1-12.

• Meakin, A. M. (1915). In Russian Turkestan: A garden of Asia and its people. G. Allen.

• Meng, Liaokuo. (2015). The Establishment of the Protectorate of the Western Regions in the Western Han Dynasty and Its Significance. Journal of Ningxia University (Humanities & Social Sciences Edition) (6), 37, 71-77.

孟辽阔. (2015). 西汉中期西域都护府的设立åŠå…¶é‡è¦æ„义. å®å¤å¤§å­¦å­¦æŠ¥(人文社会科学版)(6), 37,71-77.

• Meng, Xianshi. (2012). Khotan: A Shift from Garrison Station to Garrison Town. Journal of Peking University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 49(4), 120-128.

孟宪实. (2012). 于阗:从镇æˆåˆ°å†›é•‡çš„æ¼”å˜. 北京大学学报:哲学社会科学版, Vol.49(4), 120-128.

• Millward, J. A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: a History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press.

• Mullaney, T. (2011). Coming to terms with the nation: Ethnic classification in modern China (Vol. 18). University of California Press.

• Pence, M. (2018, October 4). Vice President of US. Speech presented at Administration’s Policy toward China in The Hudson Institute, Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 29, 2019, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-vice-president-pence-administrations-policy-toward-china/?utm_source=link.

• Qi, Ruoxiong. (2001). On the Establishment and Significance of Union in Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang. Western Region Study(1), 43-50.

ç¥è‹¥é›„. (2001). 试论新疆ä¿å«å’Œå¹³æ°‘主åŒç›Ÿçš„æˆç«‹åŠå…¶æ„义. è¥¿åŸŸç ”ç©¶(1), 43-50.

• Qi, Jinyu. (2016). A Preliminary Study of the Chinese Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Taxonomy System. Journal of Minzu University of China Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition)(4), 43, 18-28.

ç¥è¿›çŽ‰. (2016). 中国的民æ—识别与民æ—分类学体系化åˆæŽ¢. 中央民æ—大学学报(哲学社会科学版)(4), 43, 18-28.

• Qing, J., Jin, B., & Zhu, Z. (2002). The Formation and Development of the CCP Minority Economic Policy. Heilongjiang Journal of Nations, 69, 52-61.

é’觉, 金炳é•, &朱振军. (2002). 中国共产党少数民æ—ç»æµŽæ”¿ç­–çš„å½¢æˆå’Œå‘展--中国共产党民æ—纲领政策形æˆå’Œå‘å±•ç ”ç©¶ä¹‹å二. 黑龙江民æ—丛刊. 69, 52-61.

• Sanjuán, A. G. (2012). Al-Andalus en la historiografía del nacionalismo españolista (siglos XIXXXI): entre la Reconquista y la España musulmana. A, 1300, 65-104.

• Shichor, Y. (2003). Virtual transnationalism: Uygur communities in Europe and the quest for Eastern Turkestan independence. Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and across Europe, 281-311.

• Smith, Anthony. D. (2013). Nationalism: Theory, ideology, history. John Wiley & Sons.

• Smith Finley, J. (2007). Chinese oppression in Xinjiang, Middle Eastern conflicts and global Islamic solidarities among the Uyghurs. Journal of Contemporary China, 16(53), 627-654.

• Stalin, J. (1954). Marxism and the national question.

• Stein, M. A., & Stein, A. (1907). Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan (Vol. 1). Clarendon Press.

• Stephens, B. (2018, October 19). The Curse of Affirmative Action. New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/19/opinion/harvard-case-affirmative-action.html

• Stewart, A. B., & Sheng, Q. (2017). Chinese Muslims and the Global Ummah. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group,.

• Tang, J. (2012). A Study on Chinized Marxist Outlooks on Ethno-Nation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Anhui.

å”建兵. (2012). 中国化马克æ€ä¸»ä¹‰æ°‘æ—è§‚ç ”ç©¶. (Doctoral dissertation).安徽大学.

• Thum, R. (2018, May 15). What Really Happens in China’s ‘Re-education’ Camps. New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/opinion/china-re-education-camps.html?_ga=2.207381463.590327983.1540397926-1138100108.1482019188.

• Tilbury, N., & Todd, M. (2008). One thousand languages: Living, endangered, and lost. Univ of California Press.

• Trombert, É. (2000). Les Manuscrits Chinois de Koutcha: Fonds Pelliot de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Institut des hautes études chinoises du Collège de France.

• Toops, S. (2004). Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949. East-West Center Washington.

• Tursun, N. (2008, August). The Formation of Modern Uyghur Historiography and Competing Perspectives toward Uyghur History. In China & Eurasia Forum Quarterly (Vol. 6, No. 3).

• Wang, Aiyun. (2013). The CPC and Minorities’ Language Creation and Reform. Historical Investigation of CPC, 7, 71-81.

王爱云. (2013). 中共与少数民æ—文字的创制和改é©. 中共党å²ç ”究(7), 71-81.

• Wang, D. D. (1998). East Turkestan Movement in Xinjiang. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 4(1), 1-18.

• Wang, Xilong. (1985). Muslim Farmer in Xinjiang of Qing Dynasty. Journal of Northwest Minzu University (Philosophy and Social Science), 1, 44-52.

王希隆. (1985). 清代新疆的回屯. 西北民æ—大学学报(哲学社会科学版)(1), 44-52.

• Wei, L. (1999). Rethink on the Origin, Formation and Development of the Uyghur. ETHO-NATIONAL STUDIES, 4, 83-88. Retrieved March 31, 2019.

é­è‰¯. (1999). ç»´å¾å°”æ—èµ·æºã€å½¢æˆå’Œå‘展问题å†æ€è€ƒ. æ°‘æ—ç ”ç©¶(4), 88-88.

• Zenz, A. (2019). ‘Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitude’: China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey, 38(1), 102-128.

• Zhang, A. (2013). Study on the Remains of Guard City in the Western Region - WuLei City of the Safe. QILU JOURNAL, 3, 51-56.

å¼ å®‰ç¦. (2013). 西域都护府乌垒城é—å€è€ƒ. é½é²å­¦åˆŠ(3).51-56.

• Zhao, Y. (2011). The Duhufu System of the Tang Dynasty in the Western Region. Journal of Kaili University, 29, 2, 47-50.

赵永伦. (2011). 论å”æœåœ¨è¥¿åŸŸçš„都护府制度. 凯里学院学报, 29(2), 47-50.

• Zheng, Q. (2009). Investigation about the Chinese Ethnic Criminal Policy (Doctoral dissertation). Minzu University of China.

郑é½çŒ›. (2009). 中国民æ—åˆ‘äº‹æ”¿ç­–ç ”ç©¶. (Doctoral dissertation). 中央民æ—大学.

• Yang, Qiong., & Yang, Zhongjian. (2015). An Analysis of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in Supporting the Development of Ningxia Halal Meat Manufacturing. Journal of Hui Muslim Minority Studies, 99, 112-118.

æ¨ç¼, & æ¨é’Ÿå¥. (2015). å®å¤æ¸…真肉制å“产业å‘展中的财税支æŒæ”¿ç­–分æž. 回æ—ç ”ç©¶(3), 112-118.

• Yang, Shengmin. (1988). Analysis of the Ethnic Characteristics of Ancient Uyghur People-- Comment on the Difference Between the modern Uyghur’s and the ancient Uyghur. Ethnic Study of Gansu, 1. 78

æ¨åœ£æ•. (1988). 回纥人的ç§æ—特å¾è¯•æž-兼评维å¾å°”æ—与其先民回纥之区别. 甘肃民æ—ç ”ç©¶, 1, 78.

• Ye, X. (2007). Seven Day's Talk On Religious Issues. Pekin: Central Party School Press.

å¶å°æ–‡. (2007). 宗教七日谈. 北京:å®—æ•™æ–‡åŒ–å‡ºç‰ˆç¤¾ä¸­å…±ä¸­å¤®å…šæ ¡å‡ºç‰ˆç¤¾.




How to Cite

Deng, L., & Valle de Frutos, S. (2019). Historical-Sociological Background of the Relationship between China and Xinjiang Region. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajhss.v7i3.5846