The Application of “Digit Ratio 2D:4D” in Predicting Male-Female Hands on Prehistoric Cave Hand Stencils in Indonesia


  • R. Cecep Eka Permana Universitas Indonesia
  • Karina Arifin
  • Ingrid HE Pojoh


Hand print/stencil is one object that is common found at prehistoric caves. Many aspects can be studied using hand stencils as sources, and one of them is the study of gender identity of the maker of the hand stencils, whose hands were printed on cave walls.


It is John T. Manning who introduced the idea about “ratio 2-digit/4-digit (2D/4D)†to differ male palm/hand and female.  It is said that the length of forefinger and ring finger can differ whether they belong to male or female. Manning’s idea is tested and applied on the hand stencils from prehistoric cave Petta Kere in Maros District, South Sulawesi, particularly from the panel where hand stencils are in a context with big belly wild boar.




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How to Cite

Permana, R. C. E., Arifin, K., & Pojoh, I. H. (2015). The Application of “Digit Ratio 2D:4D” in Predicting Male-Female Hands on Prehistoric Cave Hand Stencils in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(5). Retrieved from