Rationing the Pressurized Air-Vessel Volume for Water Hammer Protection in Water Pipe Systems


  • Ahmed El-Dabaa
  • Osama Khorais




Air Vessel, Water Hammer, Pipe Line, Surge Pressure


Air vessel is one of the efficient devices for controlling and protecting the piping system against transient problems as water hammer phenomenon. Old studies illustrated the air vessel importance and its working methodology. In order to maximize the performance and minimize the hazardous problems of such system, protection devices (such as air vessel) cost is one of the considerations in the design process. Therefore, its characteristics are highly important for efficient operation with less expensive safety system. This research paper presents a numerical modelling work to investigate the effect of the Air Vessel parameters, such as (1) dimensions (diameter, D, height, H), (2) the connection equivalent resistance, hlc, between the vessel and the main pipeline and (3) initial state parameter (initial air volume, Vai). Those parameters affects the vessel total volume (Vt) and operation as well as the safety system. A pump station is simulated as a case study using Wanda model. The results showed that the specifications change in vessel height, H, connection equivalent resistance, hlc, with main pipe and initial air volume, Vai, have a great impact on the system protection against transient problems when using the air vessel.


Alexandre K. Soares et.al. 2009. Unsteady Flow with Cavitation in Viscoelastic Pipes. International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems. Vol. 2, No. 4, October-December 2009. Pp,269-277.

Simpson, A. R. and Bergant, A., 1994, "Numerical comparison of pipe-column-separation models," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 120, No. 3, pp. 361-377.

Itissam, O. Ahmed, S. Karima, O. Driss. 2013. Sizing the Protection Devices to Control Water Hammer Damage. International Journal of Civil, Architectural Science and Engineering Vol:7 No:11, pp,415-420.

M.A. Bouaziz, et,al. 2014. Water hammer effects on a gray cast iron water network after adding pumps. Engineering Failure Analysis 44, pp,1–16.

A.S. Tijsseling. 2007. Water hammer with fluid–structure interaction in thick-walled pipes. Computers and Structures 85 (2007). Pp, 844–851.

Khamlichi , L. Jezequel and F. Tephany. Elastic-plastic water hammer analysis in piping systems. Wave Motion 22 (1995) 279-295.

Arash Niroomandi , Seyed Mahmood Borghei and Asghar Bohluly. 2012. Implementation of Time Splitting Projection Method in water hammer modeling in deformable pipes. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 98 (2012). Pp, 30-42.

Fathy M. Radwa, El Sayed T., Hamdy W. and Ramdan K. 2011. Computer analysis of the different water hammer protection systems. Engineering Research Journal Faculty of Engineering, Minoufiya University.

Eman Fawzi. 2011. Improving Design of Irrigation Pipeline Networks, Egypt 2011.

Robert Keller. 2014. Investigation of Severe Water Hammer in a Large Pump Station – Case Study. Pipelines 2014, ASCE 2014, pp, 1392-1401.

Allievi, L., "Theory of water Hammer", (Translated by E.E. Halmos), Riccardo Garon Rormme, 1913. Allievi, L., 1913, ‘‘Teoria del colpo d’ariete,’’ Atti Collegio Ing. Arch. ~English translation by Halmos EE 1929!, ‘‘The Theory of Waterhammer,’’ Trans. ASME.

Angus, Robert W., 1935, Simple Graphical Solution for Pressure Rise in pipes and Pump discharge lines, J. Eng. Inst., Canada, pp. 72-81.

Joukovsky, N., "Water Hammer" (Translated by Miss O. Simin), Proc. Am. Watervords Assoc. Vol. 24, pp. 341-424, 1904.

Streeter, V. L., and E.B. Wylie,1967, Hydraulic Transient, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Now sold by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan), 1967.

Wylie, E.B., Streeter, V.L., and Suo, L., 1993, Fluid Transients in Systems, McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Anton Bergant et al., 2008. Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing Part 1: Mathematical tools. Journal of Hydraulic Research Vol. 46, No. 3 (2008), pp. 373–381.

Dídia Covas, et al. 2010. The dynamic effect of pipe-wall viscoelasticity in hydraulic transients Part II—model development, calibration and verification. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 43:1, 56-70.

David Stephenson, Fellow, ASCE. 1997. Effects of air valves and pipe work on water hammer pressures. Journal of Transportation Engineering. 1997.123. pp,101-106.

P.U. Akpan,et al. 2015. Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA Transient software. Ain Shams Engineering Journal (2015).

Simon Sidmak. 2016. Elastic-plastic behaviour of welded joints during loading and unloading of pressure vessels. 21st European Conference on Fracture, ECF21, 20-24 June 2016, Catania, Italy.

Vahid Rezaei, Melih Calamak, and Zafer Bozkus. 2017. Performance of a Pumped Discharge Line with Combined Application of Protection Devices Against Water Hammer. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2017) 21(4), pp, 1493-1500.




How to Cite

El-Dabaa, A., & Khorais, O. (2018). Rationing the Pressurized Air-Vessel Volume for Water Hammer Protection in Water Pipe Systems. Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajet.v6i2.5341