Performance Analysis of Single Point Positioning (SPP) and MADOCA-Precise Point Positioning (MADOCA-PPP) in Road/Lane Identification
The advancement in GNSS technology introduced many possible applications that involve its basic functions, namely Positioning, Navigation and Timing. Single Point Positioning (SPP) is the most common positioning technique that is instantaneous, however less accurate. Relative positioning was introduced to improve the point positional accuracy. However, this necessitates connection to a single GNSS receiver or network of GNSS receivers. Latest innovation in relative positioning is the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) that requires augmentation from satellite. This study explores the use of PPP utilizing the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). The QZSS is a satellite system operated by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It is also a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) complementing the Global Positioning System (GPS) whose signal can be received in Japan, some countries in East and Southeast Asia and in the Oceania region.
This study aims to evaluate the performance of QZSS, Multi-GNSS Advanced Demonstration of Orbit and Clock Analysis â€“ Precise Point Positioning (MADOCA-PPP) in car navigation and road/lane identification. This will be compared with the current car navigation positioning using SPP (GPS-only). The data used was obtained from a probe experiment conducted on October 10-12, 2016 along the Skyway and non-Skyway routes between Buendia, Makati City and Bicutan, ParaÃ±aque City. The RTKLib software was used during data acquisition and also for processing the ground control points (GCPs). The GCPs were used to geo-reference the orthophoto map provided by NAMRIA to the WGS84 reference system. Digitization and comparative analysis were done using ArcGIS software. The road/lane identification was done by taking the distance from the centerline of the road/lane identified to be the route traveled by the car based on the experiment instruction. The vertical accuracy was assessed by comparing the point distances from the digitized line with heights extracted from Digital Surface Model (DSM).
ÂThe preliminary assessment using estimates of points per 100 m segment showed that MADOCA-PPP gave 74.59% of the estimates falling in the inner lane against the 32.21% of SPP (GPS-only) in the northbound Skyway run. In the southbound it is 52.06% and 9.58% for MADOCA-PPP and SPP respectively. The percentage of points going out of the road boundaries is at most Â 2.47% for MADOCA-PPP while SPP had a maximum of 40.7 %. On the non-Skyway run, MADOCA_PPP still dominates the SPP on partially obstructed roads such as East Service Road, West Service Road and Pasong Tamo. However, in OsmeÃ±a Highway where the road is located underneath the Skyway, PPP logged intermittently while SPP continuously logged data indicating continuous car movement albeit inaccurate. In the Skyway lane identification, the results showed that MADOCA-PPP gave a 0.92 m average distance from the lane centerline against 3.66 m average for SPP. This proves that MADOCA-PPP can better delineate the lane traveled by car as it is within 1.75 m (Â½ of the standard lane width of 3.5 m). On average, the vertical accuracy of MADOCA-PPP is 1.64 m against 10.67 m using SPP. The resulting average height from SPP is more than the minimum 4.9 m standard vertical clearance for roads hence; it could not provide clear vertical separation between roads compared to PPP.
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