An Examination of an Illuminated Bike Path in a Southern U.S. Town
Keywords:crash, safety, security, outdoor, pedestrian, bicycle, lighting, community, field study
An illuminated pedestrian and bike path in a southern U.S. town was examined for this study. The U.S. state where this study was conducted is ranked in the top 50% for fatal pedestrian crashes in the United States of America. The path, with sections both near to and distant from the roadway, bordered a University campus in the southern U.S. and served to link existing University buildings, a University/community arena and parking. Researchers empirically examined existing lighting conditions along the proposed path in 2005, considering existing spill lighting from nearby buildings and roadways. Following industry procedures, they took sample light meter readings utilizing a hand-held lux meter. After a five year delay in Federal funding, construction on the illuminated pedestrian and bike path project commenced. After the pathâ€™s completion in 2012, the researchers re-measured light levels at the site.Â They compared their pre- and post-installation measurements to the industry recommendations, the IESNA lighting recommendations for pedestrian and bike paths in effect during these two time periods. After the new lighting was installed, light levels measured in 2012-13 and the light levels were much more even. The path is currently in use by University and community stakeholders. Safety and security concerns had spurred interest in the design and construction of an illuminated pedestrian and bike path. This paper begins to fill a gap in the literature regarding empirical case studies of pedestrian and bike path lighting installations.
Antonakos, C. L., â€œEnvironmental and Travel Preferences of Cyclistsâ€, Transportation Research Record, vol. 1438, pp. 25-33, 1994.
Bicycle Safety, a presentation to the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. (2012).
Darksky.org. (2015) Information sheet #30 - Discussion of good lighting fixtures. [Online] Available at: http://www.darksky.org/assets/documents/is030.pdf [Accessed 25 Mar. 2015].
Darksky.org. (n.d.) Information sheet #51 - Lighting and crime. [Online] Available at: http://www.darksky.org/assets/documents/is051.pdf [Accessed 25 Mar. 2015].
DiLaura, D., Houser, K., Mistrick, R., and Steffy, G., The Lighting Handbook. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, USA, 2011.
Dill, J., â€œBicycling for Transportation and Health: The Role of Infrastructureâ€, Journal of Public Health Policy, vol. 30, no. S1, pp. S295-S110, 2009.
Forester, J., â€œThe Bicycle Transportation Controversyâ€, Transportation Quarterly, vol. 55, no. 2, pp.7-17, 2001.
Hebert, P., Sammons, T., Kang, M. and Lee, H., â€œPedestrian and Bike Path Illumination for Safety and Security: Empirical Pre- and Post-Field Studies by a University Teamâ€, Urban Transport XIX, vol. 130, 2013.
Hesselberg, G., â€œCity Considers Shedding Some Light on Bike Path; A Newly Designed Fixture Shines Only Down, Not Out, But Many Property Owners Continue to Oppose the Ideaâ€, The Capitol Times & Wisconsin State Journal, p. A1, 2012.
Hunt, J. and Abraham, J., â€œInfluences on Bicycle Useâ€, Transportation, vol. 34, no. 4, pp.453-470, 2006.
KATC, (n.d.). Searching for Mickey Shunick. [online] Available at: http://www.katc.com/full-coverage/searching-for-mickey-shunick/ [Accessed 26 Mar. 2015].
Kim, J., Kim, S., Ulfarsson, G. and Porrello, L., â€œBicyclist Injury Severities in Bicycleâ€“Motor Vehicle Accidentsâ€, Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 238-25, 2007.
Madsen, J., â€œExterior Lighting for safety and securityâ€, Buildings, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 238-251, 2006.
Moritz, W., â€œAdult Bicyclists in the United States: Characteristics and Riding Experience in 1996â€, Transportation Research Record, vol 1636, no. 1, pp.1-7, 1998.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, (2003). National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.
Pucher, J. and Dijkstra, L., â€œPromoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from the Netherlands and Germanyâ€, Am J Public Health, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1509-1516, 2003.
Pucher, J., Komanoff, C. and Schimek, P., â€œBicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and Re-Appraisal of Cycling Trends and Policiesâ€, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 33, no. 7-8, pp. 625-654, 1999.
Quickfacts.census.gov, (2015). Lafayette Parish QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. [online] Available at: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/22/22055.html [Accessed 25 Mar. 2015].
Rea, M., The Lighting Handbook. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, USA, 2000.
Reynolds, C., Harris, M., Teschke, K., Cripton, P. and Winters, M., â€œThe Impact of Transportation Infrastructure on Bicycling Injuries and Crashes: A Review of the Literatureâ€, Environ Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 47, 2009.
Rodgers, G., â€œFactors Associated with the Crash Risk of Adult Bicyclistsâ€, Journal of Safety Research, vol. 28, no. 4, pp.233-241, 1997.
Schiffman, L., & Kanuk L., Consumer Behavior, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 2010.
Statemaster.com, (2015). Auto Accidents pedestrian fatalities as percent of total statistics - States compared - StateMaster. [online] Available at: http://www.statemaster.com/graph/trn_aut_acc_ped_fat_as_per_of_tot-accidents-pedestrian-fatalities-percent-total [Accessed 26 Mar. 2015].
Willis, K., Powe, N. and Garrod, G., â€œEstimating the Value of Improved Street Lighting: A Factor Analytical Discrete Choice Approachâ€, Urban Studies, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2289-2304, 2005.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.