Hemispheric Music Processing and Learning Efficiency Improvement in Children with ADHD and Healthy During Working Aural Musical Memory Training at Its Optimal Maturity Age

Maria Dymnikowa


Working memory training has influence on the learning efficiency processing with near and far transfers effects. The music is the matter of bilateral stimulation during its listening or music working memory training stimulation, with respecting of memory span limitation during training processing. The aim of the present experimental-correlation study, on the children aged 12th healthy and with ADHD inattentive pattern, was experimental verification of: I. influence of the working aural musical memory training stimulation, as dynamical part-time brain condition during aural music perception, with duration of 3 months (35 training sessions at three times per week for 1,5 h), as near transfer effect, on the outcome cognitive learning efficiency improvement - in mathematics or language development and in the time abridgement for school homework (working memory efficiency) inflicted in the educational process, with additional income condition of cognitive maturity level in school grades’ average indicator; II. relation between working aural musical memory laterality (income functional condition with outcome dynamical change tendency) and cognitive learning efficiency indicators in both groups during working aural musical memory training stimulation. Income and outcome measure was throught with working aural musical memory psychology measurement, with additional learning efficiency data obtained from 80 subjects. Results suggest that working aural musical training influences the learning efficiency process, with its musical hemispheric specification processing, without differing health and ADHD empiric groups. Working memory training by music stimulation may be important in learning efficiency development in ADHD as well as in healthy children with forming up bilateralism condition and better interhemispheric processing in cognitive and learning functions. Future implications for research are discussed.



working aural musical memory training, language and mathematics learning efficiency, ADHD, hemispheric music processing

Full Text:



Abraham, W. C. (2008). Metaplasticity: tuning synapses and networks for plasticity.

Nature reviews. Neuroscience, May, 9 (5), p.387.

ADHD / Segen’s Medical Dictionary. (2012). © Copyright by Farlex, Inc., retrieved August 1 2016 from


ADHD / Partner Medical Dictionary. (2012). © Copyright by Farlex, Inc., retrieved August 1 2016 from


ADHD / Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 9th ed. “adhd” (2009). © Copyright by Elsevier, retrieved August 1 2016 from


Alfano, K.M., Cimino, C. R. (2008). Alteration of expected hemispheric asymmetries: Valence and arousal effects

in neuropsychological models of emotion. Brain and cognition, April, vol.66, no.3, p. 213 - 220.

Alloway, T. P. (2009). Working memory, but not IQ, predicts subsequent learning in children with learning difficulties.

European journal of psychological assessment, January, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 92 - 98.

Alloway, T. P., Alloway, R. G. (2009a). The efficacy of working memory training in improving crystallized intelligence.

Nature proceedings, September, 11 p.http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2009.3697.1.

Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Kirkwood, H., Elliott, J. (2009b). The cognitive and behavioral characteristics

of children with low working memory. Child development, March-April, vol. 80, no. 2, p.606 - 621.

Alloway, T. P., Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic

attainment. Journal of experimental child psychology, May, vol. 106, no. 1, p. 20 - 29.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5. 5th ed.

Washington, D. C., American Psychiatric Association, 947 p.

Andrews, G., Halford, G. S. (2002). A cognitive complexity metric applied to cognitive development.

Cognitive psychology, September, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 153 - 219.

Antshel, K. M., Barkley, R. (2008). Psychosocial interventions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, April, Vol. 17, no. 2,

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ed. L. A. Rohde, S. V. Faraone, p. 421 - 437.

Anvari, S. H., Trainor, L. J., Woodside, J., Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing,

and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of experimental child psychology, October, vol. 83,

no. 2, p. 111 - 130.

Arnsten, A. F., Rubia, K. (2012). Neurobiological circuits regulating attention, cognitive control,

motivation and emotion: disruptions in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.

Journal of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, April, vol. 51, no. 4, p. 356 - 367.

Aronen, E. T., Vuontela, V., Steenari, M. R., Salmi, J., Carlson, S. (2005). Working memory, psychiatric symptoms

and academic performance at school. Neurobiological of learning and memory, January, vol. 83, no. 1,

p. 33 - 42.

Atkinson, M., Hollis, C. (2010). NICE guideline: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Archives of disease in childhood. Educational and practice edition, February, vol. 95, no. 1, p. 24 - 27.

Baddeley, A. (1992). Working memory. Science, January, vol. 225, p. 556 - 559.

Baddeley, A. (2003).Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, October,

vol. 4, no. 10, p. 829 - 839.

Baddeley, A. D., Hitch, G. J., Williamson, V. J. (2010). Musicians’ and non-musicians’ short-term memory

for verbal and musical sequences: comparing phonological similarity and pitch proximity.

Memory and cognition, vol. 38, no. 2, p. 163 - 175.

Ball, K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W.,

Smith, D. M., Tennstedt, S. L., Unverzagt, F. W., Willis, S. L. (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions

with older adults: a randomized control trial. JAMA (Journal of the American medical association),


Barbey, A. K., Koenigs, M., Grafman, J. (2013). Dorsolateral prefrontal contributions to human working memory.

Cortex, May, vol. 49, no. 5, p.1195 - 1205.

Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome

of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow-up study.

Journal of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, July, vol. 29, no. 4, p. 546 - 557.

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention and executive functions:

constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological bulletin, vol.121, no.1, p. 65 - 94.

Barnett, R., Maruff, P., Vance, A., Luk, E. S. L., Costin, J., Wood, C., Pantelis, C. (2001).

Abnormal executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the effect of stimulant medication

and age on spatial working memory. Psychological medicine, September, vol. 31, no. 6, p. 1107 - 1115.

Bedard, A., Martinussen, R., Ickowicz, A., Tannock, R. (2004).

Methylphenidate improves visual-spatial memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Journal of American academy of child adolescent psychiatry, April, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 260 - 268.

Ben-Pazi, H., Gross-Tsur, V., Bergman, H., Shalev, R. S. (2003).

Abnormal rhythmic motor response in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Developmental medicine and child neurology November, vol. 45, no. 11, p. 743 - 745.

Bergman-Nutley, S., Soderqvist, S., Bryde, S., Thorell, L. B., Humphreys, K., Klingberg, T. (2011).

Gains in fluid intelligence after training non-verbal reasoning in 4-year old children - a controlled,

randomized study. Developmental science, May, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 591 - 601.

Bergman-Nutley, S., Darki, F., Klingber, T. (2014). Music practice is associated with development of working memory

during childhood and adolescence. Frontiers in human neuroscience, January, vol. 7, article 926, p. 1 - 9.

Besson, M., Schon, D., Moreno, S., Santos, A. E., Magne, C. (2007). Influence of musical expertise and musical training

on pitch processing in music and language. Restorative neurology and neuroscience, vol. 25 no. 3-4, p. 399-410.

Besson, M., Chobert, J., Marie, C. (2011). Transfer of training between music and speech: common processing, attention,

and memory. Frontiers in psychology, May, vol. 2, art.94, p. 1 - 8.

Biederman, J., Mick, E., Faraone, S. V. (2000). Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity

disorder: impact of remission definition and symptom type. American journal of psychiatry, May, vol. 157,

no. 5, p. 816 - 818.

Bigorra, A., Garolera, M., Guijarro, S., Hervas, A. (2015). Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training

in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European child and adolescent psychiatry, December,

vol. 25, no. 8, p. 853 - 867.

Blankenship, A. B. (1938). Memory span: a review of the literature. Psychological bulletin, January, vol. 35, no. 1,

p. 1 - 25, abstract P.A., no. 2327, 1938.

Borod, J. C., Haywood, C. S., Koff, E. (1997). Neuropsychological aspects of facial asymmetry during emotional

expression: a review of the normal adult literature. Neuropsychology review. March, vol.7, no.1, p.41 - 60.

Bragdon, A. D., Gamon, D. (2003). Building mental muscle: conditioning exercises for the six intelligence zones. 2nd ed.

Amazon, Allen D. Bragdon Publishers, Inc. - 320 р.

Brehmer, Y., Westerberg, H., Backman, L. (2012). Working memory training in younger and older adults:

training gains, transfer, and maintenance. Frontiers in human neuroscience, March, vol. 6, article 63, p. 1 - 7.

Breitling, D., Guenther, W., Rondot, P. (1987). Auditory perception of music measured by brain electrical activity

mapping. Neuropsychologia, vol. 25, no. 5, p. 765 - 774.

Bridger, W. H. (1961). Sensory habituation and discrimination in human neonate. American journal of psychiatry, May,

vol. 117, no. 11, p. 991 - 996.

Bugos, J. A., Perlstein, W. M., McCrae, C. S., Brophy, T. S., Bedenbaugh, P. H. (2007). Individualized piano instruction

enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults. Aging and mental health, July, vol. 11,

no. 4, p. 464 - 471.

Butzlaff, R. (2000). Can music be used to teach reading? Journal of aesthetic education, special issue:

the arts and academic achievement: what the evidence shows, Autumn-Winter, vol. 34, no. 3 - 4, p. 167 - 178.

Calvert, S. L., Billingsley, R. L. (1998).Young children’s recitation and comprehension of information presented

by songs. Journal of applied developmental psychology, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 97 - 108.

Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: birth to adulthood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, June, vol. 56,

no. 2, p. 220 - 222.

Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., Sarfatti, S. E.,

Vauss, Y. C., Snell, J. W., Lange, N., Kaysen, D., Krain, A. L., Ritchie, G. F., Rajapakse, J. C., Rapoport, J. L.

(1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Archives of general psychiatry, June, vol. 53, no. 7, p. 607 - 616.

Castellanos, F. X., Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The search for endophenotypes. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, August, vol. 3, no. 8, p. 617 - 628.

Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Milham, M. P., Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD:

beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in cognitive sciences, March, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 117 - 123.

Cepeda, N. J., Vul, S., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., Pashler, H. (2008). Spacing effects in learning:

a temporal ridgeline of optimal retention. Psychological science, December, vol. 19, no. 11, p. 1095 - 1102.

Chacko, A., Newcorn, J. H., Feirsen, N., Uderman, J. Z. (2010). Improving medication adherence in chronic pediatric

health conditions: a focus on ADHD in youth. Current pharmaceutical design, vol. 16, no. 22, p. 2416 - 2423.

Chacko, A., Bedard, A. C., Marks, D. J., Feirsen, N., Uderman, J. Z., Chimiklis, A., Rajwan, E., Cornwell, M.,

Anderson, L., Zwilling, A., Ramon, M. (2014). A randomized clinical trial of cogmed working memory training

in school-age children with ADHD: a replication in a diverse sample using a control condition.

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, March, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 247 - 255.

Chan, A. S., Ho, Y., Cheung, M. (1998). Music training improves verbal memory. Nature, November, vol. 396, p. 128.

Chandrasekaran, B., Kraus, N. (2010). Music, noise-exclusion, and learning. Music Perception, vol. 27, no. 4,

p. 297 - 306.

Chein, J. M., Morrison, A. B. (2010). Expanding the mind’s workspace: training and transfer effects with a complex

working memory span task. Psychonomic bulletin and review, April, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 193 - 199.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 596 p.

Cohen, D., Erez, A. (1991). Event-related-potential measurements of cognitive components in response to pitch pattern.

Music perception, an interdisciplinary journal, Summer, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 405 - 430.

Conway, A. R., Kane, M. J., Engle, R. W. (2003). Working memory capacity and its relation to general intelligence.

Trends in Cognitive Science, December, vol.7, no.12, p. 547 - 552.

Cook, E. H., Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M. D., Cox, N. J., Olkon, D. M., Kieffer, J. E., Leventhal, B. I. (1995).

Association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the dopamine transporter gene.

American journal of human genetics, April, vol. 56, no. 4, p. 993 - 998.

Cooper, N. R., Burgess, A. P., Croft, R. J., Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). Investigating evoked and induced

electroencephalogram activity in task-related alpha power increases during an internally directed attention task.

Neuroreport, February, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 205 - 208.

Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and memory: an integrated framework. Oxford Psychology Series, New York,

Oxford University Press, no. 26, 344 p.

Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: a reconsideration of mental storage capacity.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, p. 87 - 114.

Cowan, N., Alloway, T. P. (2008). The development of working memory. / In: N. Cowan (ed.)

Development of Memory in Childhood, 2nd ed. Hove, England. Psychology Press, p. 303 - 342.

Cross, I. (2007). Music and cognitive evolution. / In: R. Dunbar, L. Barrett (eds.)

Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology. ed. Oxford University Press, p. 449 - 667.

Cuddy, L., Duffin, J. (2005). Music, memory and Alzheimer’s disease: is music recognition spared in dementia,

and how can it be assessed? Medical hypotheses, 64, p. 229 - 235.

Dahlin, E., Neely, A. S., Larsson, A., Backman, L., Nyberg, L. (2008a). Transfer of learning after updating training

mediated by the Striatum. Science, June, vol. 320, p. 1510 - 1512.

Dahlin, E., Nyberg, L., Backman, L., Nelly, S. A. (2008b). Plasticity of executive functioning in young and old adults:

immediate training gains, transfer and long-term maintenance. Psychology and aging, 23, p. 720 - 730.

Dahlin, K. I. (2010). Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs.

Reading and writing, April, vol. 24, no. 4, p. 479 - 491.

Dalla Bella, S., Peretz, I., Aronoff, N. (2003). Time course of melody recognition: a gating paradigm study.

Perception and psyhophysics, October, vol. 65, no. 7, p. 1019 - 1028.

Davidson, R. J. (1992). Anterior cerebral asymmetry and the nature of emotion. Brain and cognition. Special Issue:

The role of frontal lobe maturation in cognitive and social development, September, vol.20, no.1, p.125 - 151.

de Fockert, J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D., Lavie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention.

Science, March, vol. 291, p. 1803 - 1806.

de Jonge, P., de Jong, P. F. (1996). Working memory, intelligence and reading ability in children.

Personality and individual differences, December, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 1007 - 1020.

Deary, I. J., Strand, S., Smith, P., Fernandes, C. (2007). Intelligence and educational achievement.

Intelligence, January-February, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 13 - 21.

Denckla, M. B. (1996). Biological correlates of learning and attention: what is relevant to learning disability

and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics,

April, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 114 - 119.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual review of psychology, January, vol. 64, p. 135 - 168.

Dijk, H. V., Nieuwenhuis, I. L. C., Jensen, O. (2010). Left temporal alpha band activity increases during working

memory retention of pitches. European journal of neuroscience, May, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 1701 - 1707.

Douglas, V. I., Barr, R. G., O’Neill, M. E., Britton, B. G. (1986). Short term effect of methylphenidate

on the cognitive, learning and academic performance of children with attention deficit disorder in the laboratory

and the classroom. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, March, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 191 - 221.

Drake, C., Jones, M. R., Baruch, C. (2000). The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences:

attunement, referent period, focal attending. Cognition, vol. 77, p. 251 - 288.

Duncan, J., Owen, A. M. (2000). Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands.

Trends in neurosciences, October, vol. 23, no. 10, p. 475 - 483.

Dymnikowa, M. (2015). Psychometrical research of biological properties of the working aural musical memory

in optimal cognitive mature age. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 3, Issue.2, p. 19 - 35.

Egeland, J., Aarlien, A. K., Saunes, B. K. (2013). Few effects of far transfer of working memory training in ADHD:

a randomized controlled trial. Plos one, October, vol. 8, is. 10, e.75660, p. 1 - 9.

Engelhardt, P. E., Nigg, J. T., Carr, L. A., Ferreira, F. (2008). Cognitive inhibition and working memory in attention

deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of abnormal psychology, August, vol. 117, no. 3, p. 591 - 605.

Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J., Conway, A. R. A. (1999a). Working memory, short-term memory

and general fluid intelligence: a latent variable model approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology:

General, September, vol.128, no.3, p. 309 - 331.

Engle, W. R., Kane, J. M., Tuholski, S. W. (1999b). Individual differences in working memory capacity

and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence, and functions of the prefrontal cortex.

/ In: A. Miyake, P. Shah. (eds.) Models of working memory: mechanisms of active maintenance and executive

control. ed. Cambridge university press. p. 102 - 134.

Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Norton, A., Schlaug, G. (2008). Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated

with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning. PLoS ONE, October, vol. 3, is.10, e3566. p. 1 - 8.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. 4th ed. London, SAGE publication ltd. 952 p.

Filipek, P. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., Renshaw, P. F., Kennedy, D. N., Biederman, J. (1997).

Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

with normal controls. Neurology, March, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 589 - 601.

Fukuda, K., Vogel, E. K. (2009). Human variation in overriding attentional capture.

The journal of neuroscience, July, vol. 29, no. 27, p. 8726 - 8733.

Fuster, J. M. (2008). The prefrontal cortex: anatomy, physiology and neuropsychology of the frontal lobes.

ed. London, Academic press. 424 p.

Friso-van den Bos, I., van der Ven, S. H. G., Kroesberbergen, E. H., van Luit, J. E. J. (2013). Working memory

and mathematics in primary school children: a meta-analysis. Educational research review, vol. 10, p. 29 - 44.

Fry, A. F., Hale, S. (1996). Processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence:

evidence for a developmental cascade. Psychological science, July, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 237 - 241.

Fu, K. G., Foxe, J. J., Murray, M. M., Higgins, B. A., Javitt, D. C., Schroeder, Ch. E. (2001).

Attention-dependent suppression of distracter visual input can be cross-modal cued as indexed by anticipatory

parieto-occiptal alpha-band oscillations. Cognitive brain research, August, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 145 - 152.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. ed. New York, Basic Books. 440 p.

Gardner, H. (1985). The mind’s new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. ed. New York, Basic Book. 423 p.

Gardner, H.(1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. ed. New York, Basic Books. 292 p.

Gardner, H., Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: educational implications

of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, November, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 4 - 10.

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J.(2000).Working memory deficits in children with low achievements in the national

curriculum at 7 years of age. British journal of educational psychology, June, vol. 70, part. 2, p. 177 - 194.

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Ambridge, B., Wearing, H. (2004). The structure of working memory

from 4 to 15 years of age. Developmental Psychology, March, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 177 - 190.

Gathercole, S. E., Tiffany, C., Briscoe, J., Thorn, A., ALSPAC team. (2005). Developmental consequences

of poor phonological short-term memory function in childhood: a longitudinal study.

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 598 - 611.

Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P. (2006a). Practitioner review: short-term and working memory impairments

in neurodevelopmental disorders: diagnosis and remedial support. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry,

January, vol. 47, no. 1, p. 4 - 15.

Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P., Willis, C., Adams, A. M. (2006b). Working memory in children with reading

disabilities. Journal of experimental child psychology, March, vol. 93, no. 3, p. 265 - 281.

Gray, J. R., Chabris, C. F., Braver, T. S. (2003). Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence.

Nature neuroscience, March, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 316 - 322.

Green, C. T., Long, D. L., Green, D., Iosif, A. M., Dixon, J. F., Miller, M. R., Fassbender, C., Schweitzer, J. B. (2012).

Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder? Neurotherapeutics, July, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 639 - 648.

Goldman, L. S., Genel, M., Bezman, R., Slanetz, P. J. (1998). Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity

disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of the American medical association, April. vol. 279, no. 14,

p. 1100 - 1107.

Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987). Circuitry of primate prefrontal cortex and regualation of behavior by representational

memory. / In: V. B. Mountcastle (ed.) Handbook of physiology. ed. Bethesda, MD.

American physiological society. p. 373 - 417.

Gordon, E. E. (1997). Learning sequences in music: skill, content and patterns; A music learning theory.

Chicago, GIA Publications. 397 p.

Goswami, U. (2012). Entraining the brain: applications to language research and links to musical entrainment.

Empirical musicology review, January-April, vol. 7, no. 1 - 2, p. 57 - 63.

Gunther, W., Steinberg, R., Streck, P., Banquet, J. P., Bscheid, I., Raith, I., Riedel, R., Klages, U., Stiltz, I. (1991).

Brain dysfunction in psychiatric patients during music perception measured by EEG mapping: relation to motor

dysfunction and influence of neuroleptic drugs. European neuropsychopharmacology May vol.1 no.2 p.143-155.

Gur, R. C., Skolnick, B. E., Gur, R. E. (1994). Effects of emotional discrimination tasks on cerebral blood flow:

Regional activation and its relation to performance. Brain and cognition, July, vol. 25, no.2, p.271 - 286.

Haimson, J., Swain, D., Winner, E. (2011). Do mathematicians have above average musical skill?

Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, December, vol.29, no.2, p.203 - 213.

Hall, D. A., Johnsrude, I. S., Haggard, M. P., Palmer, A. R., Akeroyd, M. A. (2002). Summerfield AQ. Spectral

and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral cortex, February, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 140 - 149.

Halperin, J. M., Healey, D. M. (2011). The influences of environmental enrichment, cognitive enhancement,

and physical exercise on brain development: can we alter the developmental trajectory of ADHD?

Neuroscience biobehavioral reviews, January, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 621 - 634.

Hamaoui, K., Deutsch D. (2010). The perceptual grouping of musical sequences: pitch and timing as competing cues. /

In: S.M. Demorest, S.J. Morrison, P.S. Campbell (ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Conference

on Music Perception and Cognition, July, p. 81 - 87.

Hempel, A., Giesel, F. L., Garcia Caraballo, N. M., Amann, M., Meyer, H., Wustenberg, T., Essig, M., Schroder, J.

(2004). Plasticity of cortical activation related to working memory during training.

American journal of psychiatry,April,vol.161,no.4,p.745-747.

Hirschman, R. S., Safer, M. A. (1982). Hemisphere differences in perceiving positive and negative emotions.

Cortex, December, vol.18, no.4, p. 569 - 580.

Ho, Y. C., Cheung, M. C., Chan, A. S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory:

Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 439 - 450.

Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement

of poor working memory in children. Developmental science, July, vol. 12, no. 4, F9 - F15.

Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Place, M., Dunning, D. L., Hilton, K. A., Elliot, J. G. (2010). Working memory deficits

can be overcome: impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD.

Applied cognitive psychology, September, vol. 24, no. 6, p. 827 - 836.

Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E. (2014). Taking working memory training from the laboratory into schools.

Educational psychology, July, vol. 34, no. 4, p.440 - 450.

Hovik, K. T., Saunes, B. K., Aarlien, A. K., Egeland, J. (2013). RCT of working memory training in ADHD:

long-term near-transfer effects. PLOS ONE, December, vol. 8, no. 12, e80561, p. 1 - 9.

Hulme, C., Roodenrys, S. (1995). Practitioners review: Verbal working memory development and its disorders.

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, March, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 373 - 398.

Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception

and developmental dyslexia: perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology.

Cortex, June, vol. 47, no. 6, p. 674 - 689.

Irish, M., Cunningham, C. J., Walsh, J. B., Coakley, D., Lawlor, B. A., Robertson, I. H., Coen, R. F. (2006).

Investigating the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer’s disease.

Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 108 - 120.

Iwaki, T., Hayashi, M., Hori, T. (1997). Changes in alpha band EEG activity in the frontal area after stimulation

with music of different affective content. Perceptual and motor skills, April, vol. 84, no. 2, p. 515 - 526.

Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working

memory. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the United States of America, May, vol. 105,

no. 19, p. 6829 - 6833.

Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training.

Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the United States of America, June, vol. 108, no. 25,

p. 10081 - 10086.

Jakobson, L. S., Cuddy, L. L., Kilgour, A. R. (2003). Time tagging: A key to musicians’ superior memory.

Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Spring, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 307 - 313.

Janata, P., Petsche, H. (1993). Spectral analysis of EEG as a tool for evaluating expectancy violations

of musical contexts. Music perception: an interdisciplinary journal, Spring, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 281 - 304.

Jarrold, C., Bayliss, D. M. (2007). Variation in working memory due to typical and atypical development.

/ In: Conway, A. R. A., Jarrold, Ch., Kane, M.J., Miyake,A., Towse,J.N. (eds.)

Variation in working memory, New York, Oxford University Press, p. 137-161.

Jolles, D. D., Grol, M. J., Van Buchem, M. A., Rombouts, S. A., Crone, E. A. (2010). Practice effects in the brain:

changes in cerebral activation after working memory practice depend on task demands.

Neuroimage, August, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 658 - 668.

Jonides, J., Lewis, R. L., Nee, D. E., Lustig, C. A., Berman, M. G., Moore, K. S. (2008).

The mind and brain of short-term memory. Annual review of psychology, vol. 59, p. 193 - 224.

Jonides, J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P. (2012). Building better brains. Scientific American mind,

September-October, vol. 23, p. 59 - 63.

Just, M. A., Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: individual differences in working memory.

Psychological review, January, vol. 99. no. 1, p. 122 - 149.

Kail, R. V. (2007). Longitudinal evidence that increases in processing speed and working memory enhance children's

reasoning. Psychological science, April, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 312 - 313.

Kane, M. J., Brown, L. H., McVay, J. C., Silvia, P. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Kwapil, T. R. (2007a).

For whom the mind wanders, and when-an experience sampling study of working memory

and executive control in everyday life. Psychological science, July, vol. 18, no. 7, p. 614 - 621.

Kane, M. J., Conway, A. R. A., Hambrick, D. Z., Engle, R. W. (2007b). Variation in working memory capacity

as variation in executive attention and control. / In: A. R. A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M. J. Kane, A. Miyake,

J. N. Towse (eds.) Variation in working memory. ed. New York, Oxford university press, p. 21 - 48.

Karatekin, C., Asarnow, R. F. (1998). Working memory in childhood onset schizophrenia

and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry research, August, vol. 80, no. 2, p. 165 - 176.

Karatekin, C. (2004). A test of the integrity of the components of Baddeley’s model of working memory in attention

deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, July vol.45 no.5 p.912-926.

Kasper, L. J., Alderson, R. M., Hudec, K. L. (2012). Moderators of working memory deficits

in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a meta-analytic review.

Clinical psychological review, November, vol. 32, no. 7, p. 605 - 617.

Kempton, S., Vance, A., Maruff, P., Luk, E., Costin, J., Pantelis, C. (1999). Executive function and attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder: stimulant medication and better executive function performance in children.

Psychological medicine, May, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 527 - 538.

Kerns, K. A., Eso, K., Thomson, J. (1999). Investigation of a direct intervention for improving attention

in young children with ADHD. Developmental neuropsychology, October, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 273 - 295.

Kilgour, A. R., Jakobson, L. S., Cuddy, L. L. (2000). Music training and rate of presentation as mediators of text

and song recall. Memory and cognition, July, vol. 28, no. 5, p. 700 - 710.

Klingberg, T. (2000). Limitations in information processing in the human brain: neuroimaging of dual task performance

and working memory tasks. Progress in brain research, February, 126, p. 95 - 102.

Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in cognitive sciences, July, vol. 14, no. 7,

p. 317 - 324.

Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2002a). Training of working memory in children with ADHD.

Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, September, vol. 24, no. 6, p. 781 - 791.

Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2002b). Increased brain activity in frontal and parietal cortex

underlies the development of visuo-spatial working memory capacity during childhood.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience, January, vol.14, no.1, p. 1 - 10.

Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., M. D., Dahlstrom, K., Gillberg, Ch. G.,

Forssberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD –

a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry,

February, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 177 - 186.

Konrad, K., Gunther, T., Hanisch, C., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2004). Differential effects of methylphenidate

on attentional functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Journal of American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, February, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 191 - 198.

Korkman, M., Pesonen, A. E. (1994). A comparison of neuropsychological test profiles of children with attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and / or learning disorder. Journal of learning disabilities, June, vol. 27 no. 6 p. 383-392.

Krain, A. L., Kendall, P. C., Power, T. J. (2005). The role of treatment acceptability in the initiation of treatment

for ADHD. Journal of attention disorders, November, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 425 - 434.

Kramer, A. F., Cepeda, N. J., Cepeda, M. L. (2001). Methylphenidate effects on task-switching performance

in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry,

November, vol. 40, no. 11, p. 1277 - 1284.

Kristofferson, M. W. (1972). Effects of practice on character-classification performance.

Canadian journal of psychology, 26, p. 54 - 60.

Kuntsi, J., Oosterlaan, J., Stevenson, I. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity:

I. Response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else?

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, February, vol. 42, no. 2, p. 199 - 210.

Kyllonen, P. C., Christal, R. E. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working memory capacity?!

Intelligence, October-December, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 389 - 433.

Lazar, J. W., Frank, Y. (1998). Frontal systems dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

and learning disabilities. Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, May, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 160-167.

Leeds, J. (2001). The power of sound: how to manage your personal soundscape for a vital, productive and healthy life.

ed. Rochester, Healing, Arts Press. - 338 p.

Levin, E. S. (2011). Working Memory: capacity, developments and improvement techniques.

ed. New York, Nova Science publishers, inc. 454 p.

Loosli, S. V., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W., Jaeggi, S. M. (2012). Working memory training improves reading processes

in typically developing children. Child neuropsychology, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 62 - 78.

Luciana, M., Depue, R. A., Arbisi, P., Leon, A. (1992). Facilitation of working memory in humans by a D2 dopamine

receptor agonist. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, January, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 58 - 68.

Mackey, A.P., Hill, S. S., Stone, S. I., Bunge, S. A. (2011). Differential effects of reasoning

and speed training in children. Developmental science, May, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 582 - 590.

Malenka, R. C., Nestler, E. J., Hyman, S. E. (2009). Higher cognitive function and behavioral control.

/ In: Sydor, A., Brown, R. Y. Molecular neuropharmacology: a foundation for clinical neuroscience (2nd ed.)

New York. McGraw-Hill Medical. ch.13, p. 313 - 321.

Mammarella, N., Fairfield, B., Cornoldi, C. (2007). Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults?

The Vivaldi effect. Aging clinical and experimental research, vol. 19, no. 5, p. 394 - 399.

Mariani, M. A., Barkley, R. A. (1997). Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention

deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental neuropsychology, January, vol. 13, no. 1, p.111 - 129.

Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., Tannock, R. (2005).

A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Journal of the american academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, April, vol. 44, no. 4, p. 377 - 384.

Martinussen, R., Tannock, R. (2006). Working memory impairments in children

with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid language learning disorders.

Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 7, p.1073 - 1094.

Mazzocco, M. M., Kover, S. T. (2007). A longitudinal assessment of executive function skills and their association

with math performance. Child neuropsychology, January, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 18 - 45.

McNab, F., Varrone, A., Farde, L., Jucaite, A., Bystritsky, P., Klingberg, T. (2009). Changes in cortical dopamine D1

receptor binding associated with cognitive training. Science, vol. 323, p. 800 - 802.

Meadows, M. E., Kaplan, R. F. (1994). Dissociation of autonomic and subjective responses to emotional slides

in right-hemisphere damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, July, vol. 32, no. 7, p. 847 - 856.

Mehta, M. A., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., Mavaddat, N., Pickard, J. D., Robbins, T. W. (2000). Methylphenidate

enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain.

The journal of neuroscience, the official journal of the society for neuroscience, March vol.20 no.6 RC65, p.1-6.

Melby-Lervag, M., Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review.

Developmental psychology, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 270 - 291.

Minear, M., Shah, P. (2006). Sources of working memory deficits in children and possibilities for remediation.

/ In: S. Pickering (ed.) Working memory and education. ed. Oxford, Elsevier press. p. 274 - 307.

Moinester, M., Gottfried, R. (2014). Sample size estimation for correlations with pre-specified confidence interval.

The quantitative methods for psychology. vol. 10, no. 2, p. 124 - 130.

Mozart effect / Segen's medical dictionary, ed. Joe Segen. Philadelphia: Farlex, Inc. 2011. retrieved August 1 2016 from


Nielsen, J. A., Zielinski, B. A., Ferguson, M.A., Lainhart, J.E, Anderson, J.S. (2013). An evaluation of the left-brain

vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

PLOS ONE 8(8): e71275.

Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: exploring the focus of attention.

Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory and cognition. May, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 411 - 421.

Ohman, A. (1979). The orienting response, attention, and learning: an information processing perspective.

/ In: H. D. Kimmel, E. H. Van Olst, J. F. Otlebeke, (eds.) The orienting reflex in humans. ed. Hillsdale, NJ,

Erlbaum, p. 443 - 471.

Olesen, P. J., Westerberg, H., Klingberg, T. (2004). Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training

of working memory. Nature neuroscience, January, vol.7, no.1, p.75-79.

Ostberg, M., Rydall, A. M. (2012). An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training program

for children with ADHD. Nordic journal of psychiatry, April, vol. 66, no. 2, p. 123 - 130.

Palisca, C. V. (2001). Baroque. In: S.Sadie and J.Tyrrell. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (vol. 2).

ed. London. Macmillan. 2001. p. 749 - 756.

Park, J., Park, D. C., Polk, T. A. (2013). Parietal functional connectivity in numerical cognition.

Cerebral Cortex, September, 23 (9), p. 2127 - 2135.

Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget’s developmental stages.

Acta psychologica, January, vol. 32, p. 301 - 345.

Passolunghi, M. C., Siegel, L. S. (2001). Short-term memory, working memory, and inhibitory control

in children with difficulties in arithmetic problem solving. Journal of experimental child psychology,

September, vol. 80, no. 1, p. 44 - 57.

Passolunghi, M. C., Mammarella, I. C. (2012). Selective spatial working memory impairment in a group of children

with mathematics learning disabilities and poor problem-solving skills. Journal of learning disabilities,

July-August, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 341 - 350.

Patel, A. D., Iversen, J. R. (2007). The linguistic benefits of musical abilities. Trends in cognitive sciences,

vol. 11, no. 9, p. 369 - 372.

Patel, A. D. (2008). Music, language, and the brain.New York:Oxford University Press.528p.

Patel, A. D. (2011). Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech?

The OPERA hypothesis. Frontiers in psychology, June, vol. 2, art.142, p.1 - 14.

Patel, A. D. (2014). Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech?

The expanded OPERA hypothesis. Hearing research, February, vol. 308, p. 98 - 108.

Pennington, B. F., Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology.

Journal of child psychology and psychiatry and allied disciplines, January, vol. 37, no. 1, p.51 - 87.

Peretz, I. (2002). Brain specialization for music. The neuroscientist, August, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 372 - 380.

Peretz,I, Zatorre,R.J.(2005).Brain organization for music processing. Annual Review of Psychology vol.56 no.1 p.89-114.

Philips, C. J., Nettelbeck, T. (1984). Effects of practice on recognition memory of mildly mentally retarded adults.

American journal of mental deficiency, May, vol. 88, no. 6, p. 678 - 687.

Pickering, S. (2006). Working memory and education. ed. Oxford, Elsevier press, 344 p.

Pineda, D., Ardila, A., Rosselli, M., Cadavid, C., Mancheno, S., Mejia, S. (1998). Executive dysfunctions in children

with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. International journal of neuroscience, vol. 96, no. 3-4, p. 177 - 196.

Platel, H., Price, C., Baron, J. C., Wise, R., Lambert, J., Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1997). The structural components

of music perception: a functional anatomical study. Brain, February, 120, part 2, p. 229 - 243.

Posner, M. I., Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain.

Annual review of neuroscience, March, vol. 13, p. 25 - 42.

Prabhakaran, V., Smith, J. A., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., Gabrieli, J. D. (1997). Neural substrates of fluid reasoning:

an fMRI study of neocortical activation during performance of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test.

Cognitive psychology, June, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 43 - 63.

Rapport, M. D., Chung, K. M., Shore, G., Denney, C. B., Isaacs, P. (2000). Upgrading the science and technology

of assessment and diagnosis: laboratory and clinical-based assessment of children with ADHD.

Journal of clinical child psychology, vol. 29, no. 4, p. 555 - 568.

Rasmussen, P., Gillberg, C. (2000). Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder

at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study.

Journal of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, November, vol. 39, no. 11, p. 1424 - 1431.

Robinson, R. G., Starkstein, S. E. (1989). Mood disorders following stroke: new findings and future directions.

Journal of geriatric psychiatry, January, vol.22, no.1, p.1 - 15.

Rogers, M., Hwang, H., Toplak, M., Weiss, M., Tannock, R. (2011). Inattention, working memory

and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Child neuropsychology, vol. 17, no. 5, p. 444 - 458.

Roland, P. E. (1984). Metabolic measurements of the working frontal cortex in man.

Trends in neurosciences, November, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 430 - 435.

Roland, P. E., Friberg, L. (1985). Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking.

Journal of neurophysiology, May, vol. 53, no. 5, p. 1219 - 1243.

Ross, E. D. (1984). Right hemisphere’s role in language, affective behavior and emotion.

Trends in neurosciences, September, vol. 7, no. 9, p. 342 - 346.

Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E., Brammer, M., Williams, S. C., Simmons, A., Bullmore, E. T. (1999).

Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control:

a study with functional MRI. Amercian journal of psychiatry, June, vol. 156, no. 6, p. 891 - 896.

Ruiz, M., H., Koelsch, S., Bhattacharya, J. (2009). Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization

and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

Human brain mapping, August, vol. 30, no. 4, p.1207 - 1225.

Sackeim, H. A., Gur, R. C., Saucy, M. C. (1978). Emotions are expressed more intensely on the left side of the face.

Science, October, 202 (4366), p. 434 - 436.

Sackeim, H. A., Greenberg, M. S., Weiman, A. L., Gur, R. C., Hungerbuhler, J. P., Geschwind, N. (1982).

Hemispheric asymmetry in the expression of positive and negative emotions. Neurologic evidence.

Archives of neurology, April, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 210 - 218.

Salazar, A. M., Warden, D. L., Schwab, K., Spector, K., Braverman, S., Walter, J., Cole, R., Rosner, M. M.,

Martin, E. M., Ecklund, J., Ellenbogen, R. G. (2000). Cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury:

a randomized trial. Defense and veterans head injury program (DVHIP) study group. JAMA

(Journal of the American medical association), June, vol. 283, no. 23, p. 3075 - 3081.

Salthouse, T. A. (1994). The aging of working memory. Neuropsychology, October, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 535 - 543.

Samson, S., Ehrle, N., Baulac, M. (2001). Cerebral substrates for musical temporal processes.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 930, p. 166 - 178.

Schachar, R. J., Tannock, R., Logan, G. (1993). Inhibitory control, impulsiveness,

and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, vol. 13, no. 8, p. 721 - 739.

Schlaug, G., Norton, A., Overy, K., Winner, E. (2005). Effects of music training on the child’s brain

and cognitive development. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1060, p. 219 - 230.

Schweitzer, J. B., Faber, T. L., Grafon, S. T., Tune, L. E., Hoffman, J. M., Kilts, C. D. (2000).

Alterations in the functional anatomy of working memory in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

American journal of psychiatry, February, vol. 157, no. 2, p. 278 - 280.

Shah, P., Miyake, A. (1999). Models of working memory: an introduction. / In: A. Miyake. P. Shah (eds.)

Models of working memory: mechanism of active maintenance and executive control.

Ed. New York, Cambridge university press, p. 1 - 26.

Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., Clasen, L., Evans, A., Giedd, J.,

Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorderis characterized by a delay in cortical maturation.

Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, December, vol. 104, no. 49, p. 19649 - 19654.

Shue, K. L., Barnett, V. I. (1992). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome. Special Issue:

the role of frontal lobe maturation in cognitive and social development. Brain and cognition, 20, p. 104 - 124.

Sleve, L. R., Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Does musical ability matter?

Psychological science, August, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 675 - 681.

Smithson, M. (2002). Confidence intervals. Quantitative applications in the social sciences. no. 140. ed. Belmont, CA,

Sage publications, Inc. 104 p.

Sohlberg, M. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Pavese, A., Heidrich, A., Posner, M. I. (2000).

Evaluation of attention process training and brain injury education in persons with acquired brain injury.

Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, October, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 656 - 676.

Solanto, M. V. (2002). Dopamine dysfunction in ADHD: integrating clinical and basic neuroscience research.

Behavioural brain research, March, vol. 130, no. 1 - 2, p. 65 - 71.

Springer, S. P., Deutsch, G. (2001). Left brain, right brain: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (5THed.)

New York,W. H. Freeman and Company Worth Publishers.406 p.

Stanley, J. M., Madsen, C. K. (1990). Comparison of infant preferences and responses to auditory stimuli: music, mother and other female voice. Journal of music therapy, June, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 54 - 97.

Strait, D. L., Kraus, N. (2013). Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span:

musicians as a model of auditory learning. Hearing research, February, vol. 308, p. 109 - 121.

Swanson, H. L., Beebe-Frankeberger, M. (2004). The relationship between working memory and mathematical problem

solving in children at risk for math disabilities. Journal of educational psychology, 96, p. 471 - 491.

Swanson, H. L., Jerman, O. (2007). The influence of working memory on reading growth in subgroups of children

with reading disabilities. Journal of experimental child psychology, April, vol. 96, no. 4, p. 249 - 283.

Swanson, H. L., Jerman, O., Zheng, X. (2008). Growth in working memory and mathematical problem solving

in children at risk and not at risk for serious math difficulties. Journal of educational psychology,

May, vol. 100, no. 2, p. 343 - 379.

Swanson, H. L., Zheng, X. Jerman, O., (2009). Working memory, short-term memory and reading disabilities:

a selective meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of learning disabilities, May-June, vol. 42, no. 3, p. 260 - 287.

Tannock, R., Ickowicz, A., Schachar, R. (1995). Differential effects of methylphenidate

on working memory in children with ADHD with and without comorbid anxiety.

Journal of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, August, vol. 34, no. 7, p. 886 - 896.

Thompson, R. G., Moulin, C. J., Hayre, S., Jones, R. W. (2005). Music enhances category fluency

in healthy older adults and Alzheimer’s disease patients. Experimental aging research, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 91 - 99.

Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Bergman-Nutley, S., Bohlin, G., Klingberg, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects

of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental science, January, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 106 - 113.

Tierney, A. T., Kraus, N. (2013). The ability to tap to a beat relates to cognitive, linguistic and perceptual skills.

Brain and language, March, vol. 124, no. 3, p. 225 - 231.

Toll, S. W. M., van der Ven, S. H. G., Kroesbergen, E. H., van Luit, J. E. H. (2011). Executive functions as predictors

of math learning disabilities. Journal of learning disabilities, November-December, vol. 44, no. 6, p. 521 - 532.

Towse, J. N., Hitch, G. J., Hutton, U. (2000). On the interpretation of working memory span in adults.

Memory and cognition, April, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 341 - 348.

Tramo, M. J., (2001). Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science, January, vol. 291, p. 54 - 56.

Trehub, S. E., Thrope, L. A., Trainor, I. J. (1990). Infant’s perception of good and bad melodies.

Psychomusicology, Spring, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 5 - 19.

Tucker, D. M., Derryberry, D. (1992). Motivated attention: anxiety and the frontal executive functions.

Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology and behavioral neurology, (cognitive and behavioral neurology),

October, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 233 - 252.

Unsworth, N., Engle, R. W. (2007a). On the division of short-term and working memory:

an examination of simple and complex span and their relation to higher order ability.

Psychological bulletin, November, vol. 133, no. 6, p. 1038 - 1066.

Unsworth, N., Engle, R. W. (2007b). The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity:

active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory.

Psychological review, January, vol. 114, no. 1, p. 104 - 132.

Vaughn, K. (2000). Music and mathematics: modest support for the oft-claimed relationship.

Journal of Aesthetic Education, special issue: the arts and academic achievement: what the evidence shows,

Autumn-Winter, vol. 34, no. 3 - 4, p. 149 - 166.

Volkow, N. D., Ding, Y. S., Flower, J. S., Wang, G. J., Logan, J., Gatley, S. J., Schlyer, D. J., Pappas, N. (1995).

A new PET ligand for the dopamine transporter: studies in the human brain.

Journal of nuclear medicine, January, vol. 36, no. 12, p. 2162 - 2168.

Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G., Ding, Y., Gatley, S. J. (2001). Mechanism of action of methylphenidate: insights

from PET imaging studies. Journal of attention disorders, vol. 6, suppl. 1, p. 31 – 43

Waugh, N. C., Norman, D. A. (1965). Primary memory. Psychological review, March, vol. 72, no. 2, p. 89 - 104.

Westerberg, H., Klingberg, T. (2007). Changes in cortical activity after training of working memory –

a single subject analysis. Psychology and behavior, 92, no.1-2, p.186 - 192.

Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Swanson, J. M., Granger, D., Kliewer, W., Spencer, J. (1987).

Natural social behaviors in hyperactive children: does effects of methylphenidate.

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, April, vol. 55, no. 2, p. 187 - 193.

Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., Pennington, B. F. (2005).

Validity of the executive function theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review.

Biological psychiatry, June, vol. 57, no. 11, p. 1336 - 1346.

Williams, G. V., Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1995). Modulation of memory fields by dopamine D1 receptors

in prefrontal cortex. Nature, August, vol. 376, p. 572 - 575.

Williams, L. V. (1986). Teaching for the two-sided mind: a guide to right brain / left brain education.

ed. Simon and Schuster, 228 p.

Witzke, J., Rhone, R. A., Backhaus, D., Shaver, N. A. (2008). How sweet the sound – research evidence for the use

of music in Alzheimers dementia. Journal of gerontological nursing, October, vol. 34, no. 10, p. 45 - 52.

Yoon, J. N. (2000). Music in the classroom: its influence on children’s brain development, academic performance,

and practical life skills. M.A.Thesis, Biola University. ERIC document reproduction service, no. ED442707,


Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M., King, A. C., Semple, W. E., Rumsey, J., Hamburger, S., Cohen, R. M. (1990).

Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset.

New England journal of medicine, November, vol. 323, no. 20, p. 1361 - 1366.

Zatorre, R. J., Peretz, I. (2001). The biological foundations of music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,

vol. 930, 462 p.

Zentall, S. S. (1993). Research on the educational implications of ADHD. Exceptional children, October-November,

vol. 60, no. 2, p. 143 - 153.

Zentner, M. R., Kagan, J. (1996). Perception of music by infants. Nature, vol. 383, no. 29, p. 29.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajhss.v5i3.4856


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.