Evaluation of Microbial or Bacterial Quality of the Drinking Water of Duba Province North Saudi Arabia

Suhair Ahmed Abdalwahab, Elham Sharief Dawood, Miser A. Abouhosh

Abstract


This research was conducted to measure the bacteriological contamination of drinking water in Duba Northern Province, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. 93 water samples were collected randomly which were 30 samples of mineral water bottles representing five brands, 40 samples tap water, 20 sample local desalinated water and 3 samples of agricultural wells water. MacConkey broth was used for counting total coliform and  faecal coliforms wheras plate count was used for detection of other non coliform bacteria. The results showed that coliforms were detected in samples taken from local desalinated water, tap and well water at percentages of 60%, 25% and 67% in order. No coliforms were detected in bottled water samples. Fecal coliforms were identified as Klebsiella sp. Streptococcus faecalis. The isolation percentage were 30%, 3.33% and 67% for local desalinated water, tap and well water in order.

Non coliform bacteria were isolated from different water samples (local desalinated, tap and well water) and were identified as, P. aerugnosa, Staphyllococcus epidermis, S. aerus. Klebsiella sp. and P. aerugnosa recorded the highest count percentage when compared to the other genera . Among the different resources well water showed the highest bacterial contamination followed by local desalinated and then tap water.


Keywords


Drinking water, coliform, fecal, tabuk

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel magid HM, Ibrahim IS, Dirar HA. Chemical and microbiological examination of well and Nile water. Environmental International, 1984; 10: 259- 263.

Abualdahab M. Kamal and Gorani M. Abdalgader, (1983). Bacteria, Eltamareen Almamalyia Alasaseeya (in Arabic), pp. 86-87, 107-108.

Algahtani J. M., Saad A. M., Ahmed E. M. and Gureshi M. A.( 2015). Drinking water quality and public health in Southwestern Saudi Arabia: The need for a national monitoring program. J Family Community Med.; 22(1): 19–24.

Ali MS, Osman GA. Microbial load as pollution indicator in water of El-Khadra lake at Wadi El-Natroun, Egypt. J Am Sci. 2010; 6:489-96

Al-Otaibi EL. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:16-23.

Al-Redhaiman, K.N. and Abdel Magid H.M. The applicability of the local and international water quality guidelines to AI-Qassim Region of central Saudi Arabia. Water. Air and soil pollution 137, (2002), 235- 246.

American Public Health Association (APHA) Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, Washington, DC, USA. 20 1998.

Atiribom RY, Ovie SI, Ajayi O (2007). Bacteriological Quality of Water and Fish samples from Kainji Lake and the effects of Animal and Human Activities. Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON) Conference Proceedings, 12 th -16 th , Nov., 2007, Kebbi State, Nigeria, pp. 209-218.

Cabral JP. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water. Int J Environ Res Public Health.2010;7:3657–703.

Collee, J.G., A.G. Frasher., B.P. Marmion and A. Simmons. 1996. Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. 14th edition, Churchill Living Stone.

Evans TM, LeChevallier MW, Waarvick CE, Seidler RJ. Coliform species recovered from untreated surface water and drinking water by the membrane filter, standard, and modified most-probable-number techniques. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981; 41:657-63...

F. September, S.M., F.A. Els, S.N. Venter, and V.S. Brozel. 2007. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems. J Water Health 5:219-227.

Fall C, Hinojosa-Peña A, Carreño-de-León MC. Design of a monitoring network and assessment of the pollution on the Lerma river and its tributaries by wastewaters disposal. Sci Total Environ. 2007;373:208–19.

Fewtrell L, Bartram J. Water quality: guidelines, standards and health, London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2001. 12.

Figueras MJ, Borrego JJ. New perspectives in monitoring drinking water microbial quality. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:4179–202.

Gutub SA, Soliman MF, Zaman AU. Saudi Arabia confronts with water scarcity: An insight. Intern J Water Res Arid Environ. 2013;2:218–25.

Howard G, Bartram J. Domestic water quality service level and health. 2003.WHO/SDE/WSH/032.

Ikem A, Odueyungbo S, Egiebor NO, Nyavor K. Chemical quality of bottled waters from three cities in eastern Alabama. The Science of the Total Environment. 2002;285:165–175.

International Organization for Standardization Water quality—detection and enumeration of Escherichia coliand coliform bacteria. Part 1. Membrane filtration method (ISO 9308-1:2000), Geneva: International Organization for Standardization (2000)

Jensen PK, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A. Is there an association between bacteriological drinking water quality and childhood diarrhoea in developing countries? Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1210–5.

Kaplan RL. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens: permanent stained smear (trichrome), p. 7.3.6.1-7.3.6.6. In: H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical microbiology procedures handbook, vol. 2. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C; 1992.

Knappett PS, McKay LD, Layton A, Williams DE, Alam MJ, Mailloux BJ, et al. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water. J Water Health. 2012;10:565–78.

Koneman WE, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WCJr. Diagnostic microbiology. 4th ed. J. B. Lillincott Company, Philadelphia; 1992.

Levy K, Nelson KL, Hubbard A, Eisenberg JN. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: Case study in northern coastal Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:499–507.

Mashat BM. The microbiological quality of Sabil (free) drinking water in Makkah Al-Mukarramah during Ramadan 2007. Meterol Environ Arid Land Agric Sci J. 2010;21:87–100.

Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs Structural urban plan of Abha metropolitan area, the first and the second reports. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia1996. 1999.

Nagwa S.M., Rabab M. and Hemmat A. El badawy. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality. Life Science Journal 2013;10(1).

Nounou H. A., Ali S. M., Shalaby M. A. and Asala R. G.(2013). The threats of microbial contamination and total dissolved solids in drinking water of Riyadh’s rural areas, Saudi Arabia. Asian Biomedicine Vol. 7 No. 4 August 2013; 491-498.

Obiri-Danso K, Okore-Hanson A, Jones K. The microbiological quality of drinking water sold on the streets in Kumasi, Ghana. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;37:334–9.

Peeler K.A., Opsahl S.P. and Chanton J.PT (2006). Racking anthropogenic inputs using caffeine, indicator bacteria and nutrients in rural freshwater and urban marine systems, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 7616–7622

Pritchard E, Mkandawire T, O'Neill JG. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: Case study of Blantyre, Chirazulu and Mulanje. Phys Chem Earth J.2007;32:1167–77.

Saatti AA, Faidah HS. Environmental prevalence of pathogens in different drinking water resources in Makkah City (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) Curr World Environ J. 2013;8:37–53.

Viau EJ, Goodwin KD, Yamahara KM, Layton BA, Sassoubre LM, Burns SL, et al. Bacterial pathogens in Hawaiian coastal streams-Associations with fecal indicators, land cover, and water quality. Water Res. 2011; 45:3279-90

Water Quality and Health Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa. Ontario: 2006. Health Canada. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document – Escherichia coli.

Westrell T, Bergstedt O, Stenstr m TA, Ashbolt NJ. A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems. Int J Environ Health Res. 2003; 13:181-97

WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2008. Recommendations

WHO. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011.

William A. Strohl, Harriet Rouse and Bruce D. Fisher, (2001). Lippincott’s illustrated Reviews, Microbilogy. pp. 22-23, 26-27, 102-103.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.