The Aetolian Federation, the EU and Pakistan: An Interactive Analysis of Federations

Emmanouil M. L. Economou, Nicholas C. Kyriazis


In the present essay we begin with a short presentation of the Aetolian proto-federation, an ancient Greek federation and then, through an interactive approach we compare its structure and institutions with those of the European Union (EU), a would-be federation and Pakistan, an established federal state in central Asia since 1948. To  achieve this, we make use of a specific set of criteria such as the democratic legitimization (or not) of their main federal bodies, the existence or not of common defence and security policy, common currency, incentives to participate in the federal structure such as single citizenship (Greek: isopoliteia) and federal justice. Our results indicate that the Aetolian federation had practised a series of institutional settlements, such as both direct and representative democracy, cohesion policies such as flexible federal taxation policies and basic economic freedoms and thus, it can serve as a benchmark for further EU integration.

Full Text:



Ancient authors

Livy “History of Rome”, (Liv. Hist.).

Polybius “Histories” (Pol. Hist.).

Thucydides “History”, (Thuc. Hist).

Modern authors

Ager, S., Interstate Relations in the Greek World 337-90 BC. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, University of California Press, 1996.

Cohen, E., Athenian Economy and Society: A Banking Perspective, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

de Laix, R. A., “The Silver Coinage of the Aetolian League”, Californian Studies in Classical Antiquity, vol. 6, pp. 47-75, 1973.

Economou E. Μ. L., Kyriazis N., & Metaxas T., “The Institutional and Economic Foundations of Regional Proto-federations”, Economics of Governance, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s10101-014-0155-4.

Fine, J. V. A., “The Background of the Social War”, The American Journal of Philology. Vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 129-165, 1940.

Grainger, J. D., The League of the Aitolians. Leiden and Boston: Brill Academic Pub, 1999.

Khan, H., Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Larsen, J. A. O., “The Assembly of the Aetolian League”, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association Vol. 83, pp. 1-33, 1952.

________ Greek Federal States. Their Institutions and History, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968.

_________ A Recent Interpretation of the Achaean assemblies, Classical Philology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 178-185, 1972.

Mackil, E., Creating a Common Polity, Berkeley and Los, Angeles, University of California Press, 2013.

Mitsos, M. T., “Thermika and Panaitolika”, Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 256-261, 1947.

Morgenthau, H. J., Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York, Alfred Knopf Publisher, 1963.

Morgenthau, H. J., Scientific Man Versus Power Politics, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Moussis, N., Access to European Union: Law, Economics, Rixensart, European Study Service, 2008.

Musgrave, R. A., “Approaches to a Fiscal Theory of Political Federalism”, In National Bureau of Economic Research, Public Finances: Needs, Sources and Utilization, New York and Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 97-122, 1961.

_________ “Approaches to a Fiscal Theory of Political Federalism”, In W. E. Oates (Ed.), The Economics of Fiscal Federalism and Local Finance, Chelterham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 187-212, 1998.

Οates, W. E., “Introduction”, In Oates W. E. (Ed.), The Economics of Fiscal Federalism and Local Finance. Chelterham, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 1998.

Pauly, M. V., Income Reduction as a Local Public Good, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35-58, 1973.

_________ “Income Reduction as a Local Public Good”, In Oates W.E. (Ed.), The Economics of Fiscal Federalism and Local Finance, Chelterham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 364-368, 1998.

Peterson, J., Shackleton, M., The Institutions of the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Rahtjen, B. D., “Philistine and Hebrew Amphictionies”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 24, no. 1/2, pp. 100-104, 1965.

Rzepka, J., The Aetolian Elite Warriors and Fifth Century Roots of the Hellenistic Confederacy, AKME. Studia Historica. 4/2009, pp. 5-34, 1999.

Scholten, J. B., The Politics of Plunder: Aitolians and their Koinon in the Early Hellenistic Era, 279-217 B.C. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2000.

Schwahn, W., Das Burgerrecht der Sympolitischen Bundessaaken Beiden Griechen, Hermes, vol. 66, pp. 97-118, 1931.

Shah, A., The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan, Harvard, Harvard University Press, 2014.

Voigt, S., Blume, L. The Economic Effects of Direct Democracy - A Cross-Country Assessment, Social Science Research Network, 2006, Retrieved:

Yasin, M., Banuri, T., The Dispensation of Justice in Pakistan. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.

Weingast, B. R., The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law, The American Political Science Review, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 254-263, 1997.

Internet Sources


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)