Combined Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation - To Cleanup Endosulfan Contaminated Soil
This study investigated bioaugmentation and biostimulation separately and at combine status as a strategy for removing soil bound endosulfan. The performance of each treatment was examined by monitoring estimation of free chlorides, endosulfan degradation by HPLC and its effects on soil functionality by monitoring enzyme activities.Combination of bioaugmentation with biostimulation (Aspergillus niger ARIFCC 1053 and 1% glucose) was found to be the most efficient treatment strategy resulting in undetectable levels of endosulfan in just 11 days. Change in pH and increase in released chlorides demonstrate microbial transformation of endosulfan. In treatment 4 pH dropped from 6.9 Â± 0.05 to 4.2 Â± 0.05 while no significant change in soil pH with treatment 1,2 and 3. The released chlorides increased in accordance with endosulfan degradation in all four treatments but the rate of increase was higher in treatment 4.Â Â In treatment 4, endosulfan was at undetectable level on 11thday and in treatment. Increase in SDA and ARSA was not significant with separate supplementation. However, a combined treatment with A, niger ARIFCC 1053 and glucose proved to be the most efficient in increasing SDA and ARSA among all study. Increase in enzyme activities suggests the soil fertility and possible involvement of these enzymes in endosulfan degradation. Therefore, a combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation can be used to develop a realistic technology for treatment of endosulfan contaminated soils
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