Heterogeneous Catalysis of Yemeni Jatropha oil over MgO/TiO2 Catalyst

Rokhsana M. Ismail


Jatropha as an non edible plant is a promising plant for biodiesel production Positive environmental impacts from the cultivation of this plant including the improvement of wasteland, sustainable employment for local people, and carbon farming. For industrial biodiesel production, homogeneous basic catalyst, including KOH, NaOH, as well as potassium and sodium alkoxides, are commonly used for the transetrification of Jatropha oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl ester. However the base-catalyzed process suffers from several drawbacks, such as difficulty in recycling catalyst and environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to circumvent homogeneous process problems, attempts to use heterogeneous catalysts in the transetrification of Jatropha oils.

Titanium supported MgO catalyst samples ( 10 and 20 wt % MgO loading ) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized using FTIR, XRF, BET and XRD techniques. These materials were tested as catalyst for the conversion of Jatropha oil to biodiesel in the presence of methanol. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and MgO loading on the Jatropha oil conversion have been established. 

It was observed that for the same reaction time and MgO loading, increasing the reaction temperature increased the biodiesel yield. For example, the oil conversion over 20% MgO/TiO2 catalyst after 60 min of reaction at 60ْ C, 150ْ C, 175ْ C, 200ْ C and 225ْ C was found to be 42,55,86,89 and 100% respectively. An increase in oil conversion was also observed when the reaction time was increased. For example, biodiesel yield of 37, 43, 50, 51, for 10% MgO/TiO2  after 15, 30, 45 and 60 min respectively were measured at 175ْ C.

Catalytic properties for MgO/TiO2 solid catalyst were evaluated for the conversion of Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and MgO loading on the Jatropha oil conversion have been established. It was observed that oil conversion increases with the increase in reaction temperature and reaction time. The effect of MgO loading on the Jatropha conversion was found to depend on the operating temperature. An increase in Jatropha oil conversion with an increase in MgO loading was observed at reaction temperature above 150ْC, So the cultivation of Jatropha in Yemen will improve the economic and environmental situation. In addition the researches should be continued for getting more reused catalyst with sufficient properties.

Full Text:



- W. Xie, N. Ma, 2009 , “Immobilized Lipase on Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Biocatalyst for Biodiesel Production”, Energy & Fuels, vol. 23, pp. 1347–135.

- G. Knothe, 2001 , “Analytical methods used in the production and fuel quality assessment of biodiesel”, Am. Soc. Agricult. Eng., vol. 44, pp. 193.

- G. Mi-na, C. Yu-ning, L. Xiao-Tian, 2011, “Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous titanium dioxide spheres”, Chem. Res. Chinese Universities, vol. 27, pp. 350-353.

- A. Corma, F.V Melo, S Mendioroz, J.L.G Fierro, 2000, 12th International congress on catalysts,. 6: p. 1321.

- S. Gan , H. Kiat Ng , C. W Ooi, N. O. Motala , M. A. F Ismail, 2010, “Ferric sulphate catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil”, Biores Technol., vol. 101, pp. 7338–7343.

- Jain S, Sharma M.P. 2009, Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 10.1016.

- Lang X, Dalai A.K, Bakhashi N, Reaney M, Hertz P. 2001, Preparation and characterization of biodiesels from various bio-oils. Bioresour Technol; 80: 53–62.

- http://www.jatrophaworld.org 15 – April – 2011.

- Kazi Mostafijur Rahman, Mohammad Mashud, Md. Roknuzzaman and Asadullah Al Galib “ 2006, Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine “ , International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:10 No:03 .

M. M. Gui, K.T. Lee and S. Bhatia, Energy , 2008 , 33, 1646.

P. D. Patil, V. Gnaneswar and S.G. Deng, 2009, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., , 48, 10850

Le Tu Thanh , Kenji Okitsu , Luu Van Boi and Yasuaki Maeda “Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review”, Catalysts 2012, 2, 191-222; doi:10.3390/catal2010191.

Teresa L. Alleman and Robert L. McCormick, USA National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report Contributors and Roles, November 2016

Kamila Colombo , Laercio Ender , Anto´ nio Andre´ Chivanga Barros. “ The study of biodiesel production using CaO as a heterogeneous catalytic reaction, 2016 published in Egyptian Journal of Petroleum (2017) 26, 341–349

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i3.4873


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.