Epidemiological Profile of COVID-19 in Brazil and Worldwide
Keywords:Sex, ethnicity, epidemiological profile, age groups, COVID-19
Introduction: COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus or SARSCoV-2, has a high capacity for dissemination, which brings about an emergency scenario in public health. It manifests itself in a multifaceted manner, with a great variability in the profile of the affected population, which may be associated with biological, social and economic factors.
Objective: To know the epidemiological profile of the population affected by COVID-19, in order to promote better assistance.
Methods: This is a literature review, starting in 2020, using the SciELO, PubMed, Google Scholar, DATASUS databases and the website of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).
Results: Studies show a higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in men, in the age group after the fourth decade of life and among whites.
Discussion: The first studies showed a prevalence of coronavirus infection in males. One of the hypotheses drawn was that men present more cardiopulmonary diseases and smoke more. Another study shows that women's lower susceptibility to infection is due to the X chromosome and sex hormones, which are essential for the innate and adaptive immune response. As for the age group, most studies show a higher prevalence after the fourth decade of life, due to increased expression of angiotensin 2 receptors (ACE2), hormonal changes in aging and associated comorbidities.
Conclusion: Studies show with greater assertiveness a predominance of involvement by COVID-19 in males, individuals from the fourth decade of life and in whites. However, it is important to investigate the epidemiological profile in order to offer better assistance and prevention.
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