The Relationship between EFL Teachers’ Emotional, Social, Cultural and Spiritual Intelligence


  • Nadimeh Esfandiari Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch
  • Jahanbakhsh Nikoopour Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch


Key words, Trait emotional, social, cultural, spiritual intelligence


Effective teaching as the desired goal of EFL teachers is influenced by many different teacher-related variables such as types of intelligences.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between EFL teachers’ emotional, social, cultural and spiritual intelligence in EFL contexts. Thus, the study was based on a descriptive correlational survey design. A total of 126 EFL teachers were selected based on random sampling from various schools and English language institutes in Tehran. The EFL teachers were required to answer self-report questionnaires for being assessed in their emotional, cultural, social, and spiritual intelligence based on the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS), Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), and Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS) respectively. Other variables such as gender, university degree, and teaching experience were also investigated. The results revealed that the correlation between all four types of intelligence was significant but in all cases, the coefficient was moderate. In further analysis, gender made a significant difference only in trait emotional intelligence, but not in their cultural, social, and spiritual intelligence. University degree caused a significant difference in social and trait emotional intelligence, but not in cultural and spiritual intelligence. However, teaching experience and age made a significant difference in all four variables under the study.


Author Biographies

Nadimeh Esfandiari, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch

Nadimeh esfandiari is an MA holder in applied linguistics.She has been a language teacher at schools and various English language institutes for about 10 years. Her research interests include teacher professional development, language testing, reading in a foreign language, and language learning strategies. She has participated in some international and domestic conferences.

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Jahanbakhsh Nikoopour, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch

Jahanbakhsh Nikoopour is an assistant professor in applied linguistics. His research interests include language assessment, teacher education, factors influencing language learning, and material development. He has published articles on a variety of domestic and international academic journals and presented many papers in international and national conferences. He teaches courses at BA, MA and PhD level in applied linguistics, TESOL, and academic writing at Islamic Azad University, Tehran-North Branch, in Iran.

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How to Cite

Esfandiari, N., & Nikoopour, J. (2015). The Relationship between EFL Teachers’ Emotional, Social, Cultural and Spiritual Intelligence. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(6). Retrieved from