The The Effect of Water-to-Cement Ratio on the Penetrability of Cement Grouts: An Experimental Investigation


  • Dimitrios Christodoulou Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece



Permeation grouting, Suspensions, Water-to-cement ratio, Microfine cements, Grouted sand


The use of very fine cement grouts for injection into fine-to-medium sands has been proposed to circumvent problems associated with the permanence and toxicity of chemical grouts and the inability of ordinary cement grouts to permeate soil formations finer than coarse sand.  A laboratory investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the penetrability of cement suspensions. Four gradations from CEM I (according to EN 197-1) type of cement were used having nominal maximum grain sizes of 100 μm, 40 μm, 20 μm and 10 μm. The properties of suspensions, with water-to-cement (W/C) ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 by weight, were determined in terms of apparent viscosity. Penetrability was evaluated by conducting one-dimensional injections into five different, clean sands using a specially constructed device. Penetrability of cement suspensions increases with increasing water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and cement fineness. Microfine cement suspensions with water-to-cement (W/C) ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 can penetrate into medium-to-fine sands.


Philotheos Lokkas, Emmanouil Papadimitriou, Nikolaos Alamanis, Grigorios Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Christodoulou and Theodoros Chrisanidis, “Significant Foundation Techniques for Education: A Critical Analysis”, WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education, doi: 10.37394/232010.2021.18.2., E-ISSN: 2224-3410, Vol. 18, pp. 7-26, 2021.

Philotheos Lokkas, Ioannis Chouliaras, Theodoros Chrisanidis, Dimitrios Christodoulou, Emmanouil Papadimitriou and Evangelos Paschalis, “Historical background and evolution of Soil Mechanics”, WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education, DOI: 10.37394/232010.2021.18.10, E-ISSN: 2224-3410, Vol. 18, pp. 96-113, 2021.

Alamanis Nikolaos, “Failure of Slopes and Embankments under Static and Seismic Loading”, American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology and Sciences (ASRJETS), Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 95-126, 2017.

Papageorgiou G.P., Alamanis N. and Xafoulis N., “Acceptable movements of road embankments”, Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 20(1), pp. 30-32, Melbourne, Australia, 2020.

Alamanis Nikolaos, Zografos Christos, Papageorgiou Grigorios, Xafoulis Nikolaos and Chouliaras Ioannis, “Risk of retaining systems for deep excavations in urban road infrastructure with respect to work staff perception”, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 4168-4175, ISSN 2277-8616, 2020.

Alamanis N. and Dakoulas P., “Simulation of random soil properties by the Local Average Subdivision method and engineering applications”, Energy Systems, Springer. Print ISSN 1868-3967, Online ISSN1868-3975, pp. 1-21, 2019.

Alamanis N. and Dakoulas P., “Effect of spatial variability of soil properties on permanent seismic displacements of slopes with uniform load”, 14th Baltic Sea Geotechnical Conference, 18-19 Jan 2021, Helsinki, Finland, 2021.

Zebovitz, S., Krizek, R. and Atmatzidis, D., “Injection of fine sands with very fine cement grout”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 115: 1717–1733, 1989.

Christodoulou D.N., Droudakis A.I., Pantazopoulos I.A., Markou I.N. and Atmatzidis D.K., “Groutability and Effectiveness of Microfine Cement Grouts”, Proceedings, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: The Academia and Practice of Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt, Hamza et al. (Editors), IOS Press, Vol. 3, pp. 2232-2235, 2009.

Pantazopoulos I.A., Markou I.N., Christodoulou D.N., Droudakis A.I., Atmatzidis D.K., Antiohos S.K. and Chaniotakis E., “Development of microfine cement grouts by pulverizing ordinary cements”, Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(5), pp. 593–603, 2012.

Markou I.N., Christodoulou D.N., Petala E.S. and Atmatzidis D.K., “Injectability of Microfine Cement Grouts into Limestone Sands with Different Gradations: Experimental Investigation and Prediction”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering Journal, Vol. 36, Issue 2, pp. 959–981, 2018.

Markou I.N., Christodoulou D.N. and Papadopoulos B.K., “Penetrability of microfine cement grouts: experimental investigation and fuzzy regression modeling”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(7), pp. 868–882, 2015.

Christodoulou D., Lokkas Ph., Markou I., Droudakis A., Chouliaras I. and Alamanis N., “Principles and Developments in Soil Grouting: A Historical Review”, WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-1979 / 2224-3410, Volume 18, 2021, Art. #18, pp. 175-191, DOI: 10.37394/232010.2021.18.18.

Christodoulou D., Lokkas Ph., Droudakis A., Spiliotis X., Kasiteropoulou D. and Alamanis N., “The Development of Practice in Permeation Grouting by using Fine-grained Cement Suspensions”, Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISSN: 2321 – 2462), Vol. 9, No. 6 (2021): December 2021, pp. 92-101, 2021. DOI:

Markou I.N., Kakavias Ch. K., Christodoulou D.N., Toumpanou I. and Atmatzidis D.K., “Prediction of cement suspension groutability based on sand hydraulic conductivity”, Soils and Foundations, Vol. 60, Issue 4, pp. 825-839, 2020.

Perret S., Ballivy G., Khayat K. and Mnif T., “Injectability of fine sand with cement-based grout”, Proceedings, Conference on Grouting: Compaction, Remediation, Testing, Vipulanandan C., Editor, Logan, Utah, U.S.A., ASCE, New York, U.S.A., Geotechnical Special Publication No. 66, pp. 289-305, 1997.

Santagata M.C. and Santagata E., “Experimental investigation of factors affecting the injectability of microcement grouts”, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, Johnsen F.L., Bruce A.D. and Byle J.M., Editors, New Orleans, U.S.A., ASCE, New York, U.S.A., Geotechnical Special Publication No. 120, Vol. 2, pp. 1221-1234, 2003.




How to Cite

Christodoulou, D. (2022). The The Effect of Water-to-Cement Ratio on the Penetrability of Cement Grouts: An Experimental Investigation. Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 10(1).

Most read articles by the same author(s)